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THE ART OF PLAYING 
THE MODERN CARILLON 



John Klein 



J. FISCHER & BRO. 



GLEN ROCK, N. J. 



LIBRARY OF 
WELLESLEY COLLEGE 




PURCHASED FROM 
LIBRARY FUNDS 



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Sole Agents: 
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©Copyright, MCMLXI, by J. Fischer & Bro. 
International Copyright Secured 
All rights reserved — no part of this book may be reproduced in any form without per- 
mission in writing from the publisher, except by a reviewer who wishes to quote brief 
passages in connection with a review written for inclusion in magazine or newspaper. 

Printed in U.S.A. 



Respectfully Dedicated 

to 

George J. Schulmerich 

the 

Founder 

of the 

Modern Carillon 



III 



MUSICAL CONTENTS 
with ANALYSES 

Page 

Transcribing and Arranging 1 

Method of Instruction 1 

The Carillon 2 

Keyboards 3 

Touch 4 

Expression Pedals 4 

The Use of Expression Pedals (during Performance) 5 

The Tremolando 5 

Repertoire 6 

Rehearsal 7 

2 5 -note English Bells 8 

Praise God from Whom All Blessings Flow Old Hundreth 12 

Sweet and Low Barnby 1 3 

2 5 -note Flemish Bells 14 

Holy God, We Praise Thy Name Katholisches Gesangbuch 16 

America, the Beautiful Ward 1 8 

6 1 -note Harp Bells 21 

Greensleeves Old English 22 

2 5 -note English and Harp Bells 

Holy, Holy, Holy Dykes 26 

Juanita Spanish Air 28 

2 5 -note Flemish and Harp Bells 

Ye Sons and Daughters Traditional French 30 

To a Wild Rose MacDowell 32 

3 7 -note Flemish Bells 

Minuet Bach 34 

3 7 -note Flemish and Harp Bells 

Gaudeamus Igitur Traditional 36 

The First Nowell Traditional English Carol 39 

49 -note Flemish Bells 

O Sanctissima Sicilian Mariners, 1794 42 

49 -note Flemish and Harp Bells 

Sweet Hour of Prayer Bradbury 44 

The Swan Saint-Saens 46 

61 -note Flemish Bells 

Old Folks at Home Foster 49 

6 1 -note Celesta Bells 5 1 

The Blue Bells of Scotland Old Scottish Air 52 

"Americana"® Bells 57 

The Emerald Theme John Klein 58 

In Mirabell Garden John Klein 62 

2 5 -note Three Manual Carillon 67 

The God of Abraham Praise Leoni; Hebrew Melody 68 

Schulmerich "Carillon Americana"® Bells 70 

Nobody Knows the Trouble I've Seen American Spiritual 72 

Americana March for the Carillon John Klein 1A 

® — "Carillon Americana", "Arlington", "Americana" Bells, "Coronation" are registered 
trademarks of Schulmerich Carillons, Inc. of Sellersville, Pennsylvania. 

V 



PREFACE 

This instruction book on "The Art of Playing the Modern Carillon" is 
designed to acquaint the student carillonneur with the methods used in trans- 
cribing and arranging music for the carillon as well to present the technical 
know-how in performing. 

Music examples of well known compositions are offered as exhibits to 
illustrate what can be done in transferring a familiar melody or a piano or 
vocal composition to the Carillon. Accompanying each composition are notes 
which point out what has been done in the adaptation or arrangement from 
the original. It is strongly suggested that the student read the notes very care- 
fully, at the same time referring to the music. In addition, the student should 
analyze and play the music over and over until he becomes completely familiar 
with the style of carillon playing. Only through this procedure will the student 
be able to become proficient in adapting and arranging his music for the 
carillon. 

The carillon is not a piano; it is not an organ. It's only similiarity to a 
piano or an organ is the fact that the bells are played from a keyboard. Any- 
one who has an elementary skill in keyboard technique, can easily apply this 
technique to the carillon. Some performers will play in a more elaborate or a 
more simple style than others. Whatever the case may be, the Carillon should 
be understood as a musical instrument so that the true beauty of the bells may 
sound to their best advantage. 

Carillons vary greatly in size depending, of course, on the number of 
bells in the installation. The availability of space and funds usually determine 
the initial size of the carillon. This book, chapter by chapter, covers the 
various size carillons manufactured by Schulmerich Carillons Inc. of Sellers- 
ville, Pennsylvania. Reading material and musical examples throughout the 
book are designed to acquaint the student with carillon technique ranging 
from the simplest 25-note English Bell Carillon to the largest carillon in 
the world, the Schulmerich "Carillon Americana" Bells, an instrument con- 
sisting of nearly 1500 Bells. 

There are two styles or techniques of carillon-playing. One is the tra- 
ditional style which is of necessity limited to the possibilities of performance 
on the traditional cast bell carillon. The second is the contemporary style of 
carillon-playing which is, although unlimited, applied to the multiple-bell 
carillon. This instrument of two keyboards provides dual or more sets of 
bells, either for use separately or in combinations, allowing unlimited explor- 
ation and experimentation in the art of carillon-playing. Whichever style 
the student wishes to master, one thing is essential: he must acquire through 
study and practice the rudimental and fundamental knowledge of the principal 
functions of combining two or more bells to produce music. 



VII 



The Art of Playing 
the Modern Carillon 



TRANSCRIBING AND ARRANGING 



There is a vast difference between the musical 
terms Transcriptions and Arrangements. Both terms, of 
course, apply to the process of adapting a musical com- 
position from one medium to another. In this case the 
terms refer to the transcribing and the arranging of 
music for the carillon. 

Transcribing music for the carillon simply means 
adapting a composition from another medium, in its 
simplest and most playable form, for the carillon. In 
other words, to transcribe music from one medium to 
another means merely to exercise the craft of adaptation. 

Arranging music, whether for the carillon, the 



orchestra, or for any other medium means that you have 
entered the field of creative composition. To write a 
musical arrangement, one must develop a composition 
utilizing creative ideas based on an existing theme. The 
composer actually uses this process in creating his own 
composition; he invents the theme or a germ of a musical 
idea, and then expands the piece with creative musical 
devices until it is developed into a full composition 
whether it be in a simple or an elaborate form. 

The craft of transcribing and the art of arranging 
music for the carillon, plus original compositions, are 
exhibited herein. 



METHOD OF INSTRUCTION 



This book on "The Art of Playing the Modern 
Carillon" is, in a sense, a do-it-yourself method. It is up 
to the student reading this book to study it thoroughly, 
to read the text material over and over again, comparing 
the analysis material with the musical examples, and 
eventually applying all of the instructional methods, both 
practical and theoretical, to the carillon itself. Only 
through this procedure can the student acquaint him- 
self with the necessary requirements for improving his 
musical knowledge and technical ability as applied to 
carillon playing. 

The suggestions given as instructional material in 
the beginning of the book, are to be applied step by step 
throughout each composition. Whatever is applicable to 
one composition is, generally speaking, applicable to 
another composition. 



Throughout this book, certain pointers in the form 
of analysis are discussed about each composition. From 
the smallest to the largest carillon, each sized instrument 
is presented as a separate chapter; and accompanying 
each chapter are musical compositions, both sacred and 
secular. Although the pieces for the large multiple caril- 
lon are more elaborate in style than those written for 
small carillons, the same principles must be applied 
throughout. In other words, the advice given in the be- 
ginning of the book with the very first number must be 
carried forward, thereby retaining the elementary in- 
structions for application to the larger carillons wherein 
a more elaborate style of playing might be used. 



THE CARILLON 



What is ti Carillon? When did it have its beginning? 
What is its history ? From what did it evolve? Where did 

the Carillon begin.' Wh\ is it called a Carillon? 

These are questions whose answers ever> carillon- 
neur should know. Suffice it to say that this instruction 
book on "The Art of Playing the Modern Carillon" is 
primarily concerned with the technical problems con- 
fronting the carilloneur's performance. Although the 
historical data concerning the history and the origin of 
the bells in a carillon is of great importance, it would 
seem almost superfluous to delve into a lengthy and com- 
pletely adequate discussion about the history and the 
origin of the carillon in a publication of this size, all the 
while recognizing its importance of attempting to fulfill 
a specific need. 

The publieation of a work of this kind has been 
under consideration for several years: the reason, to pro- 
vide the carillonneur with a "Do-it-Yourself" instruction 
book on the subject of how to improve one's technical 
equipment in the art of carillon-playing and, in a lesser 
sense, to stimulate the imaginative process of increasing 
the carillonneur's repertoire. 

Therefore, to begin the study of the carillon, we 
shall not attempt dissertations on the subjects: When did 
the carillon have its beginning; what is its history; from 
what did it evolve; where did it begin; and, why is it 
called a carillon? 

We shall begin with the question: "What Is a Caril- 
lon?" To present the subject in a more pertinent fashion, 
the question should be phrased, "What Is A Carillon 
Today?" Or, the subject, instead of in the form of a 
question, might simply be titled, "The Twentieth-Cen- 
tury Carillon", or "The American Carillon." 

Let us begin then, after assuming that every caril- 
lonneur will have referred to standard reference works 
to acquaint himself with the historical significance and 
the origin of the bells in a carillon, that the modern 
carillon, as we know it today, consists of a minimum of 
twenty-five chromatically tuned bells which are playable 
from a keyboard. 

We are not concerned about the shape of the bells, 
or whether the bells hang in a tower and are suspended 
from the beam with or without their own crown; and we 
are not concerned with the weight of the bells or their 
dimensions; and, not the least, the action of transmission 
bars directing the action on the keyboard or clavier, nor 
what the keyboard looks like. We are only concerned 
with the definition that the carillon, as we know it today, 
consists of a minimum Of twenty-five chromatically tuned 
bells which are playable from a keyboard. 

In passing, it might be appropriate at this point to 
point out that carillons vary in size from the minimum 
25 bell instrument up to one of nearly 1500 bells. 



In observance, one might say that this book on 
"The Art of Playing the Modern Carillon" begins with an 
obliquity in as much as no space is devoted to the usual 
historical background of the evolution of the traditional 
carillon. Everyone surely is aware that progression in 
industry and in art has at times made rather meteoric 
strides in advancement. Generally speaking, in the history 
of music and the arts, the creative individual preceded 
the development of theoretical treatises and mechanical 
invention. This has not been the case in the development 
and the advanced and rapid growth of the carillon. 

It is understandable and quite natural that in the 
twentieth century development-work began for the me- 
chanical and artistic improvements that would culminate 
in the ultimate perfection of the carillon as we know it 
today. Mechanical and electrical inventions, new dis- 
coveries in metallurgy, and constant experimental work 
gradually lent impetus to the growth of the art of camp- 
anology, thereby releasing modern playing facilities that 
cleared up many of the disadvantageous factors that were 
part of bell-ringing for centuries. 

In the early part of the last thirty-five years, reliable 
and accurate experimentation was relentlessly conducted 
by Schulmerich Carillons, Incorporated, of Sellersville, 
Pennsylvania, "The Bell Capital of the World", who 
pioneered the vast field of electro-acoustic bells. The 
result: the development of carillons which are far superior 
in every respect to the best campaniform bells ever built. 
These modern instruments provide the same rich tones 
of the finest of traditional bells, but at a small fraction 
of their cost. Tonally, each bell is held to close tolerance 
in tuning; and each individual bell is not only in tune 
with itself, as to the several partials in relationship to 
its fundamental, but in tune with every other bell in the 
carillon. 

With the development of the now famous Schul- 
merich Carillons, installations both large and small 
sprang up in over 6000 locations throughout the world: 
in churches, in schools and universities, in Town Halls, 
cemeteries, parks, music conservatories, historical shrines, 
etc. It is not surprising that the beloved and much sought- 
after carillon should have spread its popularity so rapidly, 
especially after the decline in bell-founding during the 
19th-century, for now, of real importance to institutions 
was the fact that no massive tower structure was needed 
to support the carillon. With the contemporary carillon, 
only a few ounces of metal is required to produce the 
tones of bells weighing many tons, and at a fraction of 
their cost. When struck by their small metal hammers, 
these tiny, genuine bronze bell-tone generators create 
sounds barely audible to the ear. The minute vibrations 
which produce these sounds are, through the magic of 
specialized electrical amplification units, built up to equal 
or exceed the volumes of desired, satisfactory bell music. 

No longer is it necessary to pull the rope with 
mighty effort to hear the stirring tones of a bell of many 
tons; and the drudgery of playing the carillon from the 



clavier has been replaced by the simplicity of the modern 
electric keyboard. Today, the bells ring at the touch of 
a finger. 

This, then, is the carillon: a minimum of twenty- 
five chromatically tuned bells which are playable from 
a keyboard. The definition is simple and straightforward. 

We take for granted that each bell in a carillon is 
accurately tuned and that all the bells are in perfect tune 
with each other. We recognize the fact that carillons may 
vary in size from a minimum of twenty-five bells to an 
existing one of nearly fifteen hundred bells; it can have 
one keyboard or three, plus a full pedal clavier. The 
more bells in a carillon, the greater variety of timbres of 
the different sets of bells; consequently, the result is the 
multiple carillon. 

It takes few words to define a modern carillon; and 
suffice it to say that today's carillon is a musical instru- 
ment of perfection. 

Of general interest to carillonneurs is the fact that 
the Schulmerich Carillon Studio in Sellersville, Pennsyl- 
vania, is the home of the largest carillon in the world, 
an instrument consisting of 1453 bells. This carillon it- 
self is what is now known as stereophonic — that is to say 
it is constructed with dual sets of bells, thereby genuinely 
allowing the performance to emanate from two distinct 
directions. The two manual keyboards each contain the 
following sets of chromatically tuned bells: 



61 Flemish Bells 

61 Harp Bells — 

61 Celesta Bells - 

61 Minor Tierce 

61 Quardra Bells 

25 English Bells 

25 Chimes 

25 Celestial Harp 

49 Flemish Bells 

49 Harp Bells — 

49 Celesta Bells - 

49 Minor Tierce 

49 Quadra Bells - 



— 8 -foot pitch 
8 -foot pitch 

— 8 -foot pitch 
Bells — 8-foot pitch 

— 8-foot pitch 



Bells 

— 4-foot pitch 
4-foot pitch 

— 4-foot pitch 
Bells — 4-foot pitch 

— 4 foot pitch 



In addition to the manual keyboards, there is also 
a pedal clavier made up of the following: 

32 Flemish Bells — 8-foot pitch 

32 Harp Bells — 8-foot pitch 

32 Celesta Bells — 8-foot pitch 

32 Quadra Bells — 8-foot pitch 

32 Minor Tierce Bells — 8-foot pitch 

25 English Bells 



25 Chimes 

25 Celestial Harp Bells 

The various sets of bells are drawn into play by the 
use of stop tablets. Four expression pedals control the 
dynamic levels. A variable electric tremolando control 
permits the artist to trill on single notes, octaves, or 
chords. 

This is the largest exhibit of the Schulmerich "Car- 
illon Americana" Bells, the ultimate of perfection and 
refinement of all carillons. 

We now have sojourned through the maze of details 
defining the answers to our original question: "What Is 
a Carillon?" There is no more reason for delving into 
the historical background about the origin of a carillon 
in this book than there would need be, if a flute student 
were to pick up a book on Flute Instruction and discover 
that a large portion of the book was devoted to the his- 
torical background and origin of the flute! Indeed, an 
historical knowledge of one's instrument will obviously 
improve the conception of style in playing his instrument, 
therefore, it is strongly recommended that every carillon 
student refer to standard reference works and pamphlets 
in order to acquaint himself with the carillon's historical 
growth. 

Perhaps it is obvious to some readers that the sub- 
ject of bell-tuning has not been mentioned up to this 
point. Since the carillon is made up of a set or sets of 
chromatically tuned bells, it is not only important, but it 
is obligatory that the carillonneur learn about the com- 
plex tonal structure of a bell. The carillon, although 
played from a simple keyboard, has little relationship 
with a piano or an organ. The carillonneur is concerned 
about how to play bells. Therefore, in order for the stu- 
dent to perform adequately on the carillon, he must 
understand the tonal structure of the bells. A bell is a 
bell, one of the most beautiful percussive sounds created 
by man. 

The two most important sets of bells in a carillon 
are the English Bells and the Flemish Bells. Because of 
the importance of these two sets of bells, separate chap- 
ters are later devoted to the explanation of their use 
based on their complex tonal structures. 

But first, the student-carillonneur should be con- 
cerned about the peculiarity of touch on the carillon key- 
board, the nomenclature of the manuals and the expression 
pedals, and the technical mechanics of operating the 
Expression Pedals and executing the familiar carillonistic 
tremolando. 



KEYBOARDS 

The nomenclature for the keyboards is as follows: 2. 



1. For a two-manual carillon, the upper keyboard 
is known as the SWELL, and the lower key- 
board the GREAT. 



For a three-manual carillon, the upper key- 
boards are referred to as SWELL and GREAT, 
and the third manual, the lower keyboard is 
known as the CHOIR. 



Abbreviations: Sw., Gt., and Ch. 



TOUCH 



Staccato, Spiccato, I egato, Portamento, Marcato, 
Semi-legato, the Accent, etc.: those arc terms familiar to 
all performing musicians. rhev can be executed or simu- 
lated on all musical instruments except the carillon. The 
carillonneur can make no distinction between various 
touches. The bell is struck: and its two qualities of tone, 
the ring of the bell and its natural decay, evolve and 
transpire. Since the carillon is purelj a percussive instru- 
ment, the carillonneur therefore can make no distinction 
between a staccato and a legato touch. He cannot even 
connect his tones like the percussive piano, for he virtu- 
ally has no control over the touch. 

To the student carillonneur the question arises: 
\\ hat sort of touch is used on the carillon? 

The answer is: no special touch is required. When 
metal strikes metal, the point of contact is the same 



whether the key is struck with precision and strength or 
whether it is gently caressed. Therefore, affected man- 
nerisms between the hand and the keyboard are entirely 
out of place. 

Changes of tempi, dynamics, and expression are all 
possible on the carillon; but accents, sforzandos and 
dynamic phrasing must all be simulated with a time- 
element. The hesitant pause just before a so-called accent, 
will give the illusion of the next bell or bells to sound 
louder; and likewise the spacing of notes within a melo- 
dic line will give the effect of the musical dynamic 
phrasing. 

So, it is advisable for the carillonneur to, first of all, 
discover for himself a touch that is comfortable and one 
that assures for him absolute accuracy in performance. 



EXPRESSION PEDALS 



The Expression Pedals separately control the "Ar- 
lington" or Flemish Bells and the Harp and Celesta Bells. 
(On the larger carillons, expression is also available on 
the Quadra Bells and the Minor Tierce Bells). 

The left Expression Pedal controls the following 
sets of bells: Harp Bell, Celesta Bells, Quadra Bells, and 
Minor Tierce Bells. 

The right Expression Pedal controls the dynamic 
level of the Flemish Bells. In the case wherein the carillon 
contains a 5 octave or 61 -note range of "Arlington" or 
Flemish Bells, two Expression Pedals control the dy- 
namic levels of this particular group. 

Keeping in mind that we are now discussing the 
61 -note range of the Flemish Bells, the keyboard, in a 
sense, divides ' between Middle C and C-sharp. The left 
Expression Pedal controls the lower two octaves, below 
Middle C, and the right Pedal controls the upper three 
octaves above Middle C-sharp. This then provides flexi- 
bility in dynamic levels for the use of the Flemish Bells 
throughout such a wide range of 61 notes. It is possible 
herein to play a group of high-pitched bells double forte, 
and punctuate with softer bass bells merely by adjusting 
the position of the two Expression Pedals that control 
the upper and lower registers. On the other hand, the 
two Flemish Expression Pedals enable the carillonneur 
to play the melody on the larger bass bells at a louder 
dynamic level than the accompanying embellishments 
played by the right hand. If we did not have the two 
Expression Pedals for the 61 -note "Arlington" or Flem- 
ish Bells, we would have the same degree of loudness or 
softness throughout the entire range. 

Usually there is a "Dual-Single" control switch on 
the console which connects both the lower and upper 



ranges to one Pedal. This switch can be used if the caril- 
lonneur prefers to control both ranges of the bells from 
a single Pedal. Another technique of controlling both 
ranges, without the use of the "Dual-Single" control 
switch, is to place the right foot in the center of both 
the Flemish Expression Pedals thereby having complete 
control over the entire range by exerting toe or heel 
pressure. 

In order to clarify the number of Expression Pedals 
available, the summation is as follows: where there are 
two Expression Pedals available, the left pedal controls 
the Harp and auxiliary "Americana" Bells, and the right 
pedal controls the Flemish Bells. This arrangement is 
generally applied to multiple carillons of 37-notes and 
49-note ranges. When there are three Expression Pedals 
on the carillon, the arrangement would be as follows: 
the left pedal, as before, controls the Harp and other 
auxilliary "Americana" Bells, the center pedal controls 
the lower two octaves of the Flemish Bells, and the right 
pedal controls the upper three octaves (from Middle C- 
sharp) of the same set of Flemish Bells. This three-pedal 
arrangement is applied to the multiple carillon of 61 
note range. 

If the carillon does not have a Pedal Clavier, such 
as is found on the "Carillon Americana" Bells instru- 
ment, the correct pedal-position for the carillonneur is 
to place the left foot on the left Expression Pedal and 
the right foot on the right Expression Pedal, or in the 
case wherein there are three Pedals, as explained be- 
fore, the right foot is placed over the two Flemish Ex- 
pression Pedals. This position enables the carillonneur to 
have complete domination and control over both the 
Flemish Bells (with the right foot) and the Harp Bells 
(with the left foot). 



THE USE OF THE EXPRESSION PEDALS 



During Performance 

The function of the carillon is, basically speaking, 
to produce music for open-air listening. Although the 
carillon today can be enjoyed indoors through a monitor 
system, the music of the bells is enhanced when heard 
outdoors; consequently the carillon is an "outside in- 
strument". 

Many carillons are located in metropolitan areas 
where the sounds of the market place, the noise of traffic, 
the unmodulated voices of crowds of people, etc. all 
compete with the music of the bells. 

Furthermore, the sound of the carillon does not 
always fill a specific area. The distance that the sound 
of the carillon travels may vary from hour to hour de- 
pending on atmospheric conditions and the direction of 
the breeze. Some listeners may prefer to be reasonably 
close to the carillon during a performance, while others 
may be at the distant fringe of the sound area. 

Let us take one situation as an example: the lis- 
tener is at a moderate distance from the source of the 
tone of the bells. He is neither too close nor too far 
away. The carillon has been playing at a certain dynamic 
level to the complete enjoyment of the listener. Suddenly 
the sound disappears. For a short period of time the 
listener cannot hear the bells: then suddenly the bells 
crescendo to a hearing-level again. If this happens fre- 



quently within a number, the listener will lose interest to 
the point of being annoyed. 

Why did this happen? Obviously, from reasonable 
logic, it was because the carillonneur thoughtlessly de- 
creased his Expression Pedals to the level of forcing 
the sound to disappear. What the carillonneur hears 
through his monitor, usually under an ideal quiet at- 
mosphere, is not being heard outside under the same 
conditions. Therefore, he must be cautious in the use 
of the Expression Pedals. The worst offence is to pump 
the Pedals violently. This only results in complete annoy- 
ance for the outside-listener. It is almost safe to advise 
the carillonneur to avoid the use of the Expression Pedals 
until he has mastered the technique and acquired the 
consciousness of the results when heard outside. 

We cannot overlook the fact in this discussion, of 
"The Use of the Expression Pedals During Performance" 
that many programs are given indoors, especially today 
on the modern carillon. If the audience is completely 
attentive and an environment of absolute silence exists, 
then it is safe to recommend that the artist may inject 
dynamic expression to his heart's content. People will, 
under this situation, be either thrilled, indifferent, or 
annoyed with the carillonneur's performance and, at 
least, will not have an excuse to condemn faulty expres- 
sion on the carillon itself. 



THE TREMOLANDO 



The tremolando on the carillon is a traditional 
musical device. Since there is no way of sustaining a 
tone on a percussive instrument — at least not for any 
forced length of time — the tones of a certain pitch 
must be continually repeated. They must be repeated 
rapidly enough so as to give the effect of sustaining a 
particular pitch. This is the equivalent of the tremolo 
or tremolando as applied to bowed string-instruments: 
the quick reiteration of the same tone or tones. 

Such an effect has been used by carillonneurs for 
centuries and, therefore, in a sense, it can be called a 
purely legitimate carillonistic device. 

The tremolando can be executed with any compat- 
ible intervals except major and minor seconds. The close- 
ness of the second intervals would result in a trill instead 
of the sustained effect of the tremolando. Octaves are 
especially good on the carillon. 

How fast should one execute the tremolando? Based 
on traditional techniques, it should not be played too 
fast. On the contemporary carillon there is no limita- 
tion. Only the carillonneur's taste will govern the speed 
of the tremolando. Likes and dislikes are, in most cases, 
based on prejudices; so to specifically prescribe a tempo 
for the speed of the tremolando would be limiting the 
expression of the artist and the instrument. 



On the modern Schulmerich carillon, the variable 
speed of the tremolando can be controlled with a dial. 
The speed can be started from almost a stand-still and 
increased to a point that is humanly impossible to ex- 
ecute by hand. The effect is excitingly new. Because the 
effect of this mechanical device has revolutionized the 
carillonistic tremolando, there exists some prejudices. 
But to advise that its use should be restricted to tradi- 
tional technical effects, would be to ignore the very 
foundation of modern carillon playing. Certainly the 
contemporary Schulmerich carillons with all of their ad- 
vanced designs far exceeds the ability of the carillon- 
neurs school of playing today. The field is open for 
creative exploration. 

As with all musical expressions, the application 
should be handled with discretion. One would naturally 
keep in mind that too-much-of-anything is always in 
poor taste. 

The variable tremolando can be executed in full 
chords. Glissandos are not only possible, but sometimes 
refreshing, especially when executed in full chordal 
passages. 

Since the automatic tremolando excites its octave 
when turned on, one can expect that when fingering the 
octave, the contacts will become locked and will blot 
out. As an example: when playing Middle C with the 



"Octave* 1 and "Tremolando" on, the Middle C and its 
octave above will quickl) reiterate, thereby creating the 
carillonistic tremolando. Since the Middle C and its 
octave above are playing by the mere depression of the 
single kc\. it is obvious that to touch the octave would 
automatically interfere with its own action. Consequently, 
the result is a block-out. 

Hie tremolando in its simplest form automatically 
plays reiterated octaves. 



The automatic, variable tremolando should not rule 
out the finger-executed tremolo. For longer passages the 
mechanical tremolando is ideal, for it enables the caril- 
lonneur to maintain an accurate speed; but the finger- 
executed tremolando is of great usefulness for short 
phrases, such as the interspersion of half-notes with 
quarter-notes. The scattering here and there of the trem- 
olo should become part of the carillonneur's technical 
equipment and he should literally feel it as if it were 
second-nautre. 



REPERTOIRE 



As the supreme musical voice throughout the cen- 
turies, the Carillon has always remained the beloved 
voice of the people. And so it is today! Its ownership 
has not changed, for the music of the carillon belongs to 
everyone. It sings in a language known and loved by 
people everywhere. 

What kind of music does one play on the carillon? 

The repertoire is unlimited. The list may include 
Hymn-tunes, so-called Sacred compositions such as songs 
and choral works, Folk-songs of many nations, Ballads, 
Patriotic pieces, the Classics, airs from Operas, songs 
from Operettas, Popular tunes, original compositions, 
etc. This indeed is an imposing catalog! 

Where does the carilloneur begin and where does 
he end in planning material for his programs? 

He begins by being sensible in programming ap- 
propriate material. First of all, he should plan to play 
only the music which he is technically equipped to per- 
form; the music should be suitable to the location of the 
carillon; he should take into account the season of the 
year and the days of celebration; and, above all, he 
should program music that is generally familiar to the 
people. 

He ends his planning schedule by being sensible in 
realizing that the music of the carillon is usually not 
part of an educational project; that he is not perform- 
ing solely for a group of carillonneurs who might ad- 
mire his technical skill; and he must recognize that titles 
and composer's names that look impressive on paper do 
not necessarily make good music for listening. 

The carillonneur must be consciously aware of the 
fact that when the carillon's bells begin to sound from 
the tower, the music is, in most cases, being imposed 
on the people. Perhaps they have come of their own 
free will to hear the carillon. In a sense, they are not 
invited guests; they are not a paid-admission audience. 

Obviously, such a location as the famous Bok 
Tower at Lake Wales, Florida, where the Schulmerich 
"Carillon Americana" Bells instrument, installed in June, 
1957, is towered in a tranquil memorial park, is a rare, 
but ideal location for a carillon. But, generally speaking, 
most carillons are not so generously favored. Therefore, 
it is better to consider the average location and the av- 
erage audience. 



People like to follow a melody. They enjoy hear- 
ing a familiar tune. Although an audience may be toler- 
ant and willing, too much unfamiliar bell music that 
taxes their indulgence will soon develop into justified 
complaints. 

The fashionable Baroque music (c. 1600-1750) 
which began with Monteverdi, Gabrieli, and Sweelinck 
and which culminated with the polyphonic perfection of 
Bach, does not offer good program material for the 
carillon. Such music looks well, indeed, when its titles 
are printed on a program; but the very contrapuntal na- 
ture of the music does not lend itself to the carillon. It 
must be remembered that piano and organ music is not 
carillon music. To play music on the carillon requires 
a small effort of transcribing or arranging on the part 
of the carillonneur. Such an effort is not too much to 
ask of the artist performing on this supreme musical 
voice. The artist can never spend too much time in the 
rehearsal of his craft. 

Isolated compositions from the pens of composers 
of all periods can frequently be found to be good ma- 
terial; and, needless to say, when these pieces are dis- 
covered, they should be placed in the carillonneur's 
repertoire. However, merely because the music was writ- 
ten by a Bach or a Beethoven or a Byrd or a Brahms 
does not necessarily mean that the music is good or 
worthy of performance. All music should be selected 
because of its suitability for the carillon and for its at- 
tractiveness to the listening audience. These are the only 
rules to observe when making up a program. 

A certain amount of original carillon music is pub- 
lished in Belgium and in this country. This music was 
specifically written for the carillon by carillonneurs; and 
in most cases these carillonneurs were and are not com- 
posers. Consequently, the value of this material is ques- 
tionable. If it is programmed, it could be said that it is 
done because of a sense of duty, or perhaps in respect, 
or possibly as an educational venture. Unfortunately, the 
musical vehicle of the carillon never attracted the Moz- 
arts, the Beethovens, the Schumanns, etc. to write for 
the instrument. This is quite understandable when we 
realize that the publishing industry would have governed 
such a limited field. With the advent of the modern 
carillon, more and more fine composers are discovering 
the limitless possibilities and avenues of expressing them- 
selves through this medium. 



One more word of cautious advice: so-called modern 
music is not appropriate when played on the bells. At- 
tempts have been made in this style of composition for 
the carillon and the music is available in print; however, 
the results are devastating! The Flemish and the English 
Bells within themselves make up a complex tonal struc- 
ture. Consequently, with the further addition of harmonic 
complexities in the music, one need not stretch his im- 
agination very far to realize the result of genuine bedlam. 

In summation, the carillonneur's repertoire should 
include music that speaks a language known and loved 
by people everywhere. The few pitfalls, such as the pro- 
gramming of contrapuntal music, or considering material 
because of the fame of the composer's name, or perform- 



ing music of the so-called modern school, are insignifi- 
cant in number, but important rules to observe. Technical 
elaboration in performance should only enhance the sim- 
plicity of style. The carillonneurs — not the general 
listening audience — are the only souls interested in 
pyrotechnics on the bells. 

Assuming that the carillonneur now has a concep- 
tion of what kind of music is best suited for the carillon, 
he must consider the craft of placing these numbers 
among each other so as to build an interesting program. 
A list of compositions that are thoughtlessly thrown to- 
gether does not make a good program. A recital should 
be like a river; that is, it should begin somewhere, it 
should always be going somewhere and it should end 
somewhere. And finally, a recital should not be too long! 



REHEARSAL 



There is nothing quite so important for the musician 
as the act of practicing. To say that this is of more im- 
portance for the carillonneur would be an exaggeration, 
of course; but, in any case, rehearsal for the carillonneur 
is not only important, it is obligatory. The musician ap- 
proaching the carillon cannot take it lightly. The key- 
board similiarity between the carillon and the piano does 
not mean that the two instruments are even closely re- 
lated. A piano is a piano, and a carillon is a carillon. 
The very complexity of the bell-tones requires a certain 
theoretical approach for the carillonneur. Instead of the 
mere act of rehearsing his technique, the carillonneur 
must also practice with reasoning. 

First of all, the carillonneur enjoys a great advan- 
tage with today's modern carillon because he can rehearse 
as long as he wants in complete privacy. On the tradi- 
tional carillon practicing is limited because the bells 
outside cannot be silenced. When he depresses the levers 
of the clavier, the bells automatically will sound outside 
(perhaps much to the annoyance of the neighborhood). 
The traditional carillonneur, however, usually has at his 
disposal a "practice clavier" which he is obliged to use 
for rehearsal. This clavier is separate from the keys that 
are attached to the bells; and this particular clavier does 
not even ring the bells. It exists only for practicing. In a 
sense it is like having a piano keyboard that is not at- 
tached to the mechanism for striking the piano's strings! 
Therefore, it means practicing in silence. One cannot 
hear the music he is rehearsing! 

Consequently, the advantage that the carillonneur 
has today in practicing on the contemporary carillon 
offers him the opportunity of hearing his experiments 
during rehearsal. He can discard what is bad and keep 



what is good. After he has spent enough time privately 
perfecting his material in rehearsal, he can then, through 
the magic of an electric switch, turn on the towers which 
release the sound of the bells through the great stentors. 

The procedure in rehearsal is not quite the same 
as a pianist or an organist follows. First of all, since the 
carillonneur must contend with bells, he must calculate 
what may not be euphonious. (This subject is discussed 
elsewhere in this book). 

Secondly, the carillonneur must strive for and rigidly 
control his accuracy on the keyboard, even more so than 
the pianist or organist. It is a completely devasting ex- 
perience in sound when the carillonneur makes a mis- 
take. He must, therefore, train himself never to strike a 
wrong bell. It spells disaster! It is possible for the pianist 
or organist to cover up a mistake while playing; and if 
he is a skilled artist, he certainly learns how to minimize 
it, at least. Whereas on the piano or organ one has in- 
stantaneous control of the release of tone, the bells can- 
not be silenced. They continue to ring until the tone 
naturally decays. On the carillon there is no such thing 
as sliding into the correct note from a wrong one. Once 
the bell is struck, it cannot be diminished. A sudden dy- 
namic change on the piano can relieve an unfortunate 
situation; but, on the bells, sudden dynamic changes 
affect the overtones of all the bells that have been played. 

And so, it cannot be emphasized too strongly that 
the carillonneur must rehearse long and hard. His music, 
in most cases, must be adapted to the carillon from some 
other source; and he must train himself to be accurate. 

Dynamic levels and the use of the Expression Pedals 
are discussed elsewhere in this book. 



ENGLISH BELLS 



The bell is not a "natural" musical instrument! Its 
sound is not endowed with nature's own series of har- 
monics. 

The pipe, the reed, the string, and the human voice, 
all possess what is known as a natural series of harmonic 
overtones. Not so with the bell! What is it, then, that 
the pipe, the reed, the string, and the human voice have 
that the bell does not have? What is a natural series of 
harmonic overtones? What is the meaning of harmonics? 
It means simply that when one note is sounded (such 
as the fundamental low C in the following example) the 
first sixteen partials of the harmonic series would all 
sound simultaneously as follows: 



$ 



-*> 



«> 



U"°" 



* 



■ ko-tjia^etc . 






Not all of the partials, of course, sound in the same 
degree of intensity. Some are softer and some are louder 
than others. The series may continue upward indefinitely 
even beyond the limits of hearing. In analyzing the com- 
plexities of the vast tonal structure, one thing is strik- 
ingly apparent; there is present a predominant major 
third. To sum up the harmonic series, it is understood 
that when one note is sounded, let us say on the piano, 
a complex structure of fixed overtones or upper partials 
sounds to make up the timbre of that single note. This 
is known as the harmonic series. It is nature's very own! 

It is apparent that the method used herein in ex- 
plaining the fundamental principle is to first account for 
the opposite. 

Since the bell is not endowed with nature's own 
series of harmonics, it means simply that the tone of a 
bell is "unnatural". And since it is referred to, as unna- 
tural, how did it acquire its beautiful irregularities? And 
why is the- bell's tonal structure opposite from natural? 

The first answer is that man actually placed into 
the bell his own choice of partials. Of course, it was not 
by accident, but rather through centuries of experimenta- 
tion that man determined which series of partials were 
most pleasing. The second answer as to why the bell's 
tonal structure is opposite from natural is because the 
partials or overtones of the bell include a minor third 
which is not present in the natural harmonic series ex- 
plained earlier. This minor third is consciously close to 
the fundamental and it is strong in intensity. 

The following is the complete partial system of the 
English Bell's tonal structure: 



* 



^ 



gs£ 



Octave 

Perfect Fifth 

Minor Third 

Strike Tone, plus Prime 

Hum Tone 



With this tonal series of partials, the bell acquires 
its own distinctively rich minor characteristic. Whereas 
in the natural harmonic series the low fundamental is 
the strongest tone, the second partial is the strongest 
tone in the bell. The strike and prime fall on the same 
note, reinforced by the octave to form a definite pitch. 
The minor third, in true relationship to the strike tone, 
is repeated an octave below in the hum tone. The fifth 
is a perfect interval above the strike. 

This is the tonal structure of the English Bell. No 
other musical sound possesses this tone; it is this minor 
third partial which gives the bell its invocative, plain- 
tive quality. 

It is then no wonder that the student carillonneur 
is expected to thoroughly understand the make-up of a 
bell before he can even attempt to combine them into 
a coordinated musical plan, since the bell is unlike any 
other musical tone. With its distinctive minor third par- 
tial, it is obvious that a few peculiar problems will con- 
front the musician planning to make bell music. 

But before we go into these rather insignificant 
problems, — and the student is hereby assured that they 
are insignificant — we must know the melodic range 
of the 25-note English Bell or "Coronation" carillon so 
that we realize and understand what the size of the 
bells are in relationship to pitch and duration of sound. 
These two fragments of one's knowledge of the bells are 
important, for the pitch of the bells, whether they be 
high or low, governs the duration of time that the bells 
will ring. Small, high pitched bells will practically pre- 
sent no problem for the musician. This, of course is a 
theoretical subject and, obviously, a relative one. Never- 
theless, on small, high pitched bells, the construction of 
harmony can be less complicated because the human ear 
is not so apt to recognize complex tonal structures in the 
upper frequency range. Also, the differences in speeds or 
tempi can vary greatly when considered whether the 
carillonneur is dealing with small high pitched bells or 
whether he must plan his music for middle range or very 
low pitched bells. Thus, in a matter of pitch, it is im- 
portant that the carillonneur understands the range of 
his carillon, for the discussion that follows is concerned 
with a certain range of frequency to which the ear is 
most sensitive to vibrations. 

The chromatic range of the 25-note carillon of Eng- 
lish Bells is as follows: 

__o 



m 



T== 



TT 



The size of this carillon is somewhat enormous, weighing 
the equivalent of 79,462 pounds of bell-metal. When 
the lower G is struck, its reverberation lasts nearly eight 
seconds; whereas the highest bell rings for a duration of 
three and one-half seconds. 

Thus, one can readily realize that here is a carillon 
encompassing what is known as the middle range. It is 
this particular range of bells wherein the carillonneur 
will be most concerned about the problems of making 
harmony on the bells. 

Of major importance now that the pitch range of 
the English Bells is established, is to learn to understand 
the problems involved in creating two-part harmony, — 
what can be done, and what should not be done. 

The study of the possible combinations or intervals 
that can be used between two bells, must begin with the 
tones of the bell itself. As was explained earlier, the bell 
with its "unnatural" tonal structure consisting of the 
strike tone plus prime, the strong partial of the minor- 
third plus the octave hum tone below, and the perfect 
fifth and the octave above the strike tone, make this bell 
one of multiple tones. Therefore, in order to harmonize 
a melody in two parts on the English Bells, a thorough 
knowledge of intervals should be acquired by the student. 
When he understands intervals and their possible use on 
the English Bells, the student will shorten his rehearsal 
time and avoid floundering while hunting for the suitable 
note during a possible "hit or miss" attempt at har- 
monization. 

The main problem in harmonizing a melody on the 
English Bells is to avoid a minor-second "clash". As dis- 
cussed in a later chapter, this "clash" is a relative sub- 
ject; but it is appropriate to speak of it here and discover 
what causes the "clash" when English Bells are played 
in certain combinations. 

When the single note C is played, the bell actually 
sounds the following notes: 



ttp 



55? 



S 



Now, if we should strike together two bells in a 
major third, C and E, both bells will sound their partials 
simultaneously, and the result will be a minor-second 
"clash" as follows: 



$ 



^PP 



y=fc 



w 



since the perfect fifth of the E bell is comparatively weak, 
the "clash" is lessened. 

Next, if we strike together two bells in a minor- 
sixth, C and A-flat, both bells will again be sounding 
their partials simultaneously, and the result will be not 
only a minor-second "clash", but also a major-seventh 
"clash", as follows: 



I 



Si 



S 7 *g Eg 



a 



4 



u 



3S 



t*$g- 



This strong "clash" is even a stronger clash in the minor- 
sixth than it is in the major-third interval. Major-sevenths 
and minor-seconds occur between C-flat and C-natural, 
G and A-flat, and again between C-flat and C-natural. 

It will be recalled that earlier in this chapter it was 
said that the student could be assured that to play Eng- 
lish Bells in harmony the problems are insignificant. Ob- 
viously, insignificance does not mean unimportance in 
this case, for it must be emphasized that the intervals of 
the major-third and the minor-sixth require thoughtful 
consciousness at all times if the carillonneur is to make 
his bells sound to their best advantage. And so, with 
this in mind, the subject of harmony on English Bells 
nears completion. 

However, to copiously finish this subject of harmony 
or intervals on the English Bells, the following chart 
exhibits the remainder of the intervals, showing those 
which are compatible and those which are not: 



The 
Minor Third 



# 



>^r 



m 



il m 



The 
Perfect Fourth 



iNi 



m 



W^£ 



The 
Augmented Fourth 

and/or 
Diminished Fifth 



* 



in 1" 



3 



^=# 



W* 



m 



The strong "clash" exists between the E-flat and E-na- 
tural. There is also one between B-natural and C; but 



10 



The Perfect Fifth 



-o- 



')■ 



m 



m 



VJKZ 



The Major Sixth 



fe 



3 



w 



The Octave 



^ 



^ 



* 



It must be remembered that the minor-third (and 
its hum tone) and the octave are the strong partials; 
the perfect fifth is comparatively weak. Consequently, on 
paper the "clashes" might appear to be violent, but in 
actual practice they are minimized greatly. 

The following four intervals are incompatible: 



The Minor Second 



r&r 



m 



ki hi 



i- te 



The Major Second 



3T~ 



3 




The Minor Seventh 



# 



- %& 



g - : 



The Major Seventh 



5 



^ 



* 



ft 



Certainly much too much has been written — even 
though the availability of material is poverty stricken — 
about the peculiarities and difficulties of playing bells 
in harmony. There is no mystery surrounding the play- 
ing of bell music. The carillonneur needs no more magic 
formula than any other musician. Carillons are meant to 
be played by any musician for the complete enjoyment 
of the masses. To say that combining two bells in har- 
mony is a complicated mass of theory and practice is 
an injustice to the glorious history and existence of the 
carillon. 

Whoever cannot remember two simple rules regard- 
ing the use of harmony on the English Bell carillon — 
avoid the intervals of a major-third and a minor-sixth 
— is not worthy of experiencing the devastating delight 
of sounding the so-called "clashes"! 

In summation, all that the carillonneur student must 
remember to avoid in playing harmony on the English 
Bells is not to play the intervals of the major-third and 
the minor-sixth. 

All other intervals are pleasantly compatible assum- 
ing, of course, that one is not going to allow himself to 
be carried away and "clash" the intervals of the major 
and minor sevenths. One would hardly venture into this 
sort of harmony when applying his labors to the piano 
or the organ. It must be pointedly remembered that we 
are concerned herein only with traditional and conven- 
tional repertoire which must be harmonized in the tradi- 
tional and conventional fashion. 

The rest of this chapter offers suggestions for im- 
proving one's performance on the carillon. 

1. A quick tempo on the English Bell carillon is 
not appropriate. However, in the upper register the 
tempo of a melody may be played faster than in the 
lower register. 

2. Choose the correct range of the instrument, 
where the bells sound best, to play a song. This will re- 
quire simple transpositions at times from the printed 
page. The advanced musician will, of course, do this at 
sight; the less experienced should transpose the piece in 
writing. 

3. Always rehearse your music in private before 
attempting to turn on the tower stentors for public per- 
formance. It can be a devastating experience for the 
carillonneur who experiments while he is playing pub- 
licly, for once a bell is struck, there is no way to even 
slightly cover up an error. 

4. Be careful of chromaticisms. If a chromatic pas- 
sage must be played, be sure and play it slowly. 

5. The repertoire that can be played on the carillon 
is vast. However, all music must be reduced to a simple 
melodic line with the possible addition of a reduction to 
the basic harmonic skeleton. Complicated transcriptions 
and music that goes out of range of the carillon must 
be discarded. 

6. On the English Bell Carillon do not attempt to 
effect the harmony above the melody. It is best to add 
notes below the melody to produce a logical harmoni- 
zation. 



11 



7. Play the melody in the upper register when plan- 
ning to add harmony. When the melody is low, there is 
no room for any notes lower. 

8. Two-part harmony is sufficient on the carillon 
of English Bells, except on the diminished chords where 
three to four-part harmony may be used. 

9. Generally speaking, when planning the harmoni- 
zation of a melody, be concerned about how many 
notes you can eliminate instead of how many notes you 
can add. 

10. Keep in mind that playing a melody in single 
notes is one of the most effective sounds on the carillon. 

Although this chapter on the 25-note carillon of 
English Bells is relatively long compared to discussion 
about much larger carillons which follow, much of the 
information contained herein is entirely applicable to all 
the other carillons. Later, in taking up the carillon com- 
posed of Flemish Bells, the only material from this chap- 
ter to be discarded is the partial-system of the English 
Bell and the rule to avoid the major-third and the minor- 
sixth intervals. Otherwise, much of the material is ap- 
plicable to all carillons. 




12 



25- note English Bells 

Solo and in Harmony 



Praise God from Whom All Blessings Flow 



® Slowly 




i 



/Ts 



OLD HUNDERDTH 

Geneva Psalter, 1551 
Transcribed for carillon by John Klein 



2 



r r t r 



P¥ 




2 



/o 



i 



/C\ 



f 



PP 



rsY. 



a tempo 



J U J J 



J 1 J iJ J J ^ ^ 



F r 



C 



zr 



r 




^N 



i 



I J i J J J J i ^ 



/T\ 



r 



P^ 



r 



FT 



I 



rit. 






a temfo, but slightly slower than be/ore 

© ™ 



J [J J J 



m 



,'■■ ■'■■■;■' i ■' 



r r r f f 







i 



« 



/Tn 



^^ 



i 



* 



i 



/Tn 



i 



f 






r 



r r r r 



rail. 



r 



"PRAISE GOD FROM WHOM ALL BLESSINGS FLOW" 

This hymn tune is played through three times; the first verse in single notes; the second verse in two- 
part harmony with the added voice playing two half-notes to the bar; and the third verse in two-part harmony 
with the added voice accompanying each melodic note. 

This rather common musical device of starting the piece in a simple, single-note style and increasing the 
amount of harmony throughout the number helps to create interest for the listener in an otherwise elementary 
melody. 

The change of key in the third verse, in addition to the accompaniment for each melodic note, heightens 
and strengthens the piece during its journey through the three verses. 

For an analysis or study of the intervals used in the harmony, consult the chapter on English Bells. You 
will note at quick glance, however, that the intervals of the major-third and minor-sixth are never used. 

Through Letter C, where harmony accompanies every melodic note, the tempo should be forceful, but 
played in a slower tempo than before. 



J. F. & B. 9337 



25 -note English Bells 

Solo and in Harmony 



13 



Sweet and Low 



\&) Slowly; with warmth 



3 



JOSEPH BARNBY 
Transcribed for carillon by John Klein 

ten. 



5 



r I CJLf J i' J)| - 



i 



i 



i 



* 



* 



% 






* 



¥ 




£g 



//ztfwo 7HOSSO 



&m 



5 



^P 



r i r i r 

rit. 



\B) a temfo 



f^i' i M/ ' r 171 /'' 1 ^,' 1 ^/ '! / 



^ja; j 



IT 



© 



" m m ^ 




wt~=m 



m 



P 



tS>-r- 



iSh- 



mewo mosso 



4 



*U 






fc 



^ 



i 



* 



I 



W F ' r^; 



f* 






^CFT 



"SWEET AND LOW" 

Even on a large carillon consisting of hundreds of bells it is often desirable to play a well-known num- 
ber in single notes. Every bell is possessed of such rich partials within its own complex tone, that the addition of 
harmony does not necessarily enhance the beauty of the composition. In any case, when a melody is harmonized, 
it should be done as simply as possible. The following is a general rule in carillon playing: "It is more impor- 
tant to know what notes to take out of a piece of music, rather than to know what notes to add". 

At Letter B there is a change of key which establishes a surprise-interest for the listener as he is 
about to listen to the number for the second time. The addition of harmony, although simple, also creates 
new interest. 

The diminished chords in measures 5 and 6 of Letter B are the most compatible chords on the Eng- 
lish Bells. 

When chromaticism occurs, such as in bar 4 of Letter C, it is advisable to ritard the passage so that 
the bells do not run together because of thoughtless speed. 

You will note that the intervals of the major-third and minor-sixth are avoided throughout. 



J. F. & B. 9337 



14 



FLEMISH BELLS 



( arillons, whether old or new. are generally based 
on a particular set of bells tuned according to traditional 
standards evolving from the fifteenth century in a sec- 
tion in Europe known as 1 landers, i.e.. the lowlands of 
Belgium and Holland. Thus, we have the Flemish-tuned 
bell, unlike the old English-tuned bell, which was de- 
veloped in the lowlands and perfected in its tuning 
through the choice of partials man chose to put into the 
bell. At first there were just a few bells in a tower that 
functioned with a tower-clock mechanism. These few 
bells, capable of playing a simple melody at first, were 
soon found to be pleasant to the ear and indeed capable 
o\ playing in harmony. Smaller bells and larger bells 
were added, eventually extending the carillon into a eu- 
phonious set of chromatically tuned bells adaptable for 
the playing of all folk-music in harmony. With the at- 
tachment of a clavier, the carillon in Flanders became 
a musician's instrument — the supreme musical voice 
of the ages. 

Referred to in America as the "Arlington" Carillon, 
the Flemish Bells are the heart and core of the carillon. 
Including the full range of 61-notes, from two octaves 
below middle-C to five octaves above, the full carillon 
weighs the equivalent of 275,372 pounds of bell-metal. 
The range is chromatic, as follows: 



8- 



3 



From the great Bourdon Bell, weighing the equiva- 
lent of slightly over-twenty-two tons of bell-metal to the 
twenty-six pound C five octaves higher, the entire range 
is rich and brilliantly clear. 

Unlike the English Bells, all harmonic combinations 
are possible on the Flemish Bells. There are no restric- 
tions! Major, minor, augmented and diminished chords, 
or any other type of harmony; arpeggios, trills, tremo- 
landos, etc. can all be executed with limitless effort ac- 
cording to the ability of the carillonneur. 

The Flemish Bell, being of traditional origin like 
the English Bell, is not a "natural" musical tone. Man 
actually placed into the bell his own choice of partials; 
and, let it be said again, this was not accidental. Through 
years of experimentation, man determined which series 
of partials were most pleasing for the bell tone. When at 
last the Flemish Bell was found to be ideally suited for 
the playing of bell music in harmony, and when at last 
the art of carillon-playing was born, the bell in Flanders 
was chosen with the following partials. 



i 



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lind Octave 

~nd Firth 

•■InA Third 

Octave 

Perfect Firth 

Minor Third 

Strike Tone, plus Prime 



Hum Tone 



Since the Flemish Bell's physical tuning consists of 
the Strike and Prime tones, with the minor-third, perfect 
fifth and the octave partials, plus the Hum Tone, the 
series is usually given as follows: 



$ 



^ 



^ 



Octave 

Perrect Fifth 

Minor Third 

strike Tone, plus Prime 



Hum Tone 



The minor-third is predominant and the hum-tone 
is strong. Whereas the hum-tone in the English Bell is 
an octave below the minor-third, on the Flemish Bell, 
the hum-tone is an octave below the strike-tone. Thus, 
with the three octaves sounding in the Flemish Bell, the 
fundamental pitch has solidity and strength. Combina- 
tions of various harmonies require no theoretical prob- 
lems for the carillonneur other than a thoughtful planning 
for clarity. 

Each bell in the carillon is, of course, in exact 
relationship to itself and to every other bell in the pro- 
portion of partials making up its tone. The tuning of 
each partial in each bell should be within the accuracy 
of 1/20 of 1%. 

This, then, is the full 61 -note Flemish Bell Carillon, 
truly the world's most majestic musical instrument. The 
dynamic levels can be expressed from that of a whisper 
to the giant sonorities of the great Bourdon with the 
mere touch of the individual Expression Pedals, one for 
treble bells and one for the bass bells. 

Generally speaking, the student cannot absorb a 
knowledge of the Flemish Bells without reading the chap- 
ter on English Bells presented earlier in this book. On 
the other hand, the harmonic restrictions in playing the 
English Bells do not apply in playing the Flemish Bells. 
First of all, the 61 -note range supplies unlimited pos- 
sibilities for executing any type of music applicable to 
the carillon. The availability of expression control on the 
larger Flemish Bell carillon further enables the musician 
to inject devices of interest in his performance. 

Now, it must be obvious that the full 61 Flemish 
Bells are not always available in every carillon. Many 
carillons consist of the minimum of 25 bells; some in- 
crease to 37 and 49-note instruments; others may be 
multiple carillons consisting of Flemish Bells and Harp 
and Celesta Bells on a two or three-manual instrument. 



15 



However, whatever the range, the timbre and tonal qual- 
ity of the Flemish Bells remain the same. 

The following exhibits give the complete chromatic 
ranges of the Flemish Bell carillons, other than the 61- 
note range presented earlier: 



25 -note Flemish Bells 






37-note Flemish Bells 



^^ 



49 -note Flemish Bells 



s 



It is quite natural to expect that with the increase 
in the size of the carillon's range, the possibility of 
musical embellishments will increase. The smaller, high 
pitched bells adapt themselves to quicker tempi, tremo- 
landos, inverted harmony, etc., and with increasing or 
diminishing the range of the bells the music becomes 
either fuller and more elaborate or simpler in style, 
whichever the case may be. 



The various musical styles and possibilities are dis- 
cussed in the analyses, along with the musical examples, 
in each chapter dealing with the 25-note, 37-note, 49- 
note, and 61 -note carillons of Flemish Bells. 



16 



25- note Flemish Bells 

Solo and in Harmony 



Holy God, We Praise Thy Name 



Maestoso 

© 



KATHOLISCHES GESANGBUCH, Vienna, 1774 
Transcribed for carillon by John Klein 



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17 

"HOLY GOD, WE PRAISE THY NAME" 

Although the harmony in the Flemish Bells is used sparingly (in keeping with good taste), there are 
few limitations that one is obliged to observe in harmonizing a melody. It is safe to say that one can use 
almost any harmonic interval in the Flemish bells, assuming one will not use major sevenths and ninths. However, 
the choice of harmony will always remain a factor, i.e., whether the choice be good or not-so-good. 

Major thirds in the larger bells will sometimes present a problem, but since the octave hum-tone is rather 
strong in the Flemish Bells, the tendency toward a clash is lessened. 

In the fifth bar in Letter C, the E-flat arpeggio strongly establishes the harmony. Instead of playing the 
left hand in root position, the first inversion of the E-flat chord is struck on the downbeat in order to avoid a 
minor-second clash (between a G-flat overtone in the bass against the G-natural in the melody). The third 
count in the measure again picks up the E-flat harmony on a higher pitched bell. 



18 



25- note Flemish Bells 

Solo and in Harmony 



America, the Beautiful 



(A) Moderately slow 



SAMUEL WARD 
Transcribed for carillon by John Klein 



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19 



"AMERICA, THE BEAUTIFUL" 

The first verse is played through in its simplest form: the melody in single notes. 

At Letter B there is a change of key, raising the pitch of the song with the introduction of the harmoniza- 
tion. When playing harmony on the 25-bell carillon, the melody should be played in the upper register so that 
the top-most note of the song reaches the high G of the 25-note range. This enables the melody to be harmonized 
almost to complete satisfaction within the two-octave range. 

Since the carillon is an instrument to be listened to outdoors, and since the sonorities of the bells are 
so rich in tonal structure, — not to mention the volume of the instrument, — it is best to always underestimate 
the tempi. Bells must have a chance to "sound". The strike-tone and the bell's natural decay must be allowed to 
fill the air with all of its beautifully brilliant richness, unhampered by a speedy tempo. An over-estimated tempo 
by the carillonneur will only result in confusion for the listener. 

On the bar before Letter C, the Dominant-7th chord is implied throughout the entire measure rather than 
adhering to the three chord-changes as is in the original song. Chromaticism when played too rapidly, es- 
pecially on medium-sized or large bells, only tends to jumble the bells together that results in a rather unpleas- 
ant sound. 

The tremolando on the very last bar should not be executed too rapidly. Sixteenth notes are adequate 
and sufficient. In approaching the final note, a carefully planned ritard must take place within the tremolando 
as well as in the fill-in notes in the left hand. In this manner, the result is a graceful ending in a polished mu- 
sical style. 

There is a certain style of faulty carillon-playing that should be brought to the early attention of the 
student. If one will listen to today's carillonneurs, both traditional and contemporary, perform a simple song 
such as "America, the Beautiful", one is very apt to hear the harmony delayed and played as continual after- 
beats. This is one of the most faulty habits prevalent in carillon playing. The following is an unfamiliar melody: 

etc. 



p g 1 1» J r fl i p 



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m 



^ 



rit. 

The above melody is what the listener hears; however, to the carillonneur the music looks like this: 

tc. 



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rit. 

Now if we take a portion of the familiar "America, the Beautiful", and the carillonneur plays it like this: 

etc. 






the listener will actually hear this: 



i it r i r ;jj r ipp 



ii 



etc. 



f^Z 



Bells are a percussive instrument and the sustaining power is limited and is not governed by touch on 
the keyboard. Therefore, to interrupt the melody with delayed after-beat harmonic fills only tends to confuse the 
listener. If he hears a familiar melody, he may be more attentive; but if the melody is unfamiliar and the har- 
mony is stylized with after-beats, he cannot possibly follow what is intended. 

The carillonneur must always be conscious to play in a carillonistic manner and avoid falling into this 
most common of faulty styles of playing. 

If the carillon is large, then this style is permissible, providing the bells are spaced far enough apart in 
pitch so that the carillonneur cannot possibly confuse the melodic line. 



21 



HARP BELLS 



The complete range of the Harp Bells includes 61 
notes, from two octaves below Middle-C to five octaves 
above, tuned in chromatic sequence: 



t 



8. 



m 



The above range covers the full five octaves of the 
largest carillon keyboard. Many instruments will, of 
course, not have such a complete range. The Harp Bells 
therefore, like the Flemish Bells, are also available in 
25-note, 37-note, and 49-note ranges: 



25 -note Harp Bells 



n 



o 



37 -note Harp Bells 



t 



^= 



49-note Harp Bells 



m 



The Harp Bells are the antithesis of the heroic 
Flemish Bells. Their timbre is plush and soft-like, a 
characteristic quailty independent of pitch and loudness. 
These bells have a very definite depth and solidity of 
tone, yet they express a certain spaciousness and gen- 
tleness. 

The Harp Bell, unlike the English and the Flemish 
Bells with their minor-third partial, has selected octave 



tuning in its partial series arrangement. Striking Middle 
C, the bell's partials sound as follows: 



t 



(-»•) -<*- 



m 



The addition of the Harp Bells to the modern mul- 
tiple carillon has indeed revolutionized the art of caril- 
lon-playing. One might say that carillon-playing actually 
became an art when the multiple carillon came into 
existence. 

The main function for the Harp Bells is to lend an 
accompaniment to the larger solo bells of either the 
English or Flemish tuning. Heretofore, the variety avail- 
able in playing only on the Flemish or English Bells was 
rather limited, either in small or large-range carillons. 
Grateful and appropriate accompanimental figures are 
often impossible to execute on a straight carillon of only 
Flemish Bells. With the addition of the different tone- 
color of the Harp Bells (on a separate keyboard, of 
course) complete compositions can be played in their 
original form. 

These Harp Bells, however, are not entirely meant 
to play mere accompaniment to the solo bells. Their use 
as a separate and individual set of bells is, as a matter of 
fact, very desirable. Often on a multiple carillon consis- 
ting of only the minimum 25-note range of the Flemish 
and Harp Bells, an entire number can be played on the 
Harp Bells, thereby offering a certain variety in a pro- 
gram. On the other hand, short passages can be played 
on the Harp Bells alone before returning to the combin- 
ation of Flemish and Harp, again offering relief and 
variety within a single composition. 

The effect of the Harp Bells when heard from the 
tower is truly ethereal and celestial. 

In the following composition, "Greensleeves", four 
transcriptions cover the available ranges of the Harp 
Bells. 



22 



Harp Bells 

25-note, 37-note, 49-note, and 61-note ranges 



Greens lee ves 



25-note Harp Bells 
Moderately slow 

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37- note Harp Bells 

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"GREENSLEEVES" 

In as much as the Harp Bells are frequently available in carillons in various pitch ranges, the transcrip- 
tion of "Greensleeves" is presented in four different versions: the 25-note, 37-note, 49-note, and 61 -note ranges. 

For the student-carillonneur it is important to note that as the compass of the Harp Bells increases, the 
key also changes. This is an appropriate exhibit showing the frequent necessity of having to transpose music 
for the various sized carillons available. 

Likewise, it should be observed that, as the range of the Harp Bells increases, the style of the piece may 
change and become more elaborate. This, however, is not mentioned as a recommendation; it is, after all, merely 
called to the attention of the student so that he may observe the possibilities of exploring. 

In the 25-note range, the music begins in a simple two-part style. This style, by the way, should not 
be overlooked even when planning music for the large 61 -note range. There is an open fifth interval in the 
first bar of Letter A, and fourth intervals in the second, fourth and sixth bars. Although on paper this nota- 
tion may look thin and open, it will, nevertheless, sound well on the Harp Bells. These bells have abundant 
sustaining power. To analyze: The C in the melody (at Letter A), once sounded, is sufficient to carry through 
the measure and imply the third in the harmony on the following fourth beat. In the second bar, the melody 
has just left the note B, thereby sustaining its pitch through the open fourth interval on the fourth count. 

At Letter B the topmost note of this particular 25-note range is reached; and here the chords are 
played as full arpeggios. Throughout all four versions, the Harp Bells are often played in broken chords as an 
arpeggio. These chords should never be played too rapidly; the speed of the arpeggios should be gentle. 

In the 37-note transcription, the upper and lower ranges increases. Accordingly, more bells are available 
for such expansion. Note that harmony-fills are used sparingly. The low arpeggios in the left hand at the begin- 
ning of each bar at Letter C, are spaced so that they fall at the beginning of each measure. This gives the low 
bells an opportunity to decay before entering with a new harmony in the same register. 

The depth of the bass Harp Bells in the 49-note range truly produces a tone of rich splendor. Herein 
again note the spacing of the low chords. On the fifth bar of Letter F a short counter-melody ascends against 
the octave-melody in the left hand. As for any performing musician, well-planned ritards require perfect execu- 
tion by the carillonneur. The correct spacing of notes must be more thoroughly planned and rehearsed on the 
carillon than on the piano, for the carillonneur cannot rely on touch sensation. 

The 61 -note range expands in the top register. Octaves are often possible for the melody because of the 
wider range; however, this does not mean that the Harp Bells should be incessantly played in octaves in the 
upper bells merely because the range is available. On the contrary, much variety can be devised by changing 
registers. In the last four bars of Letter H, a dramatic effect is obtained by playing the melody in three octaves 
accompanied by full, solid chords in the low bells. 
J. F. & B. 9337 



26 



25 -note English and Harp Bells 

Holy, Holy, Holy 



With stateliness 

Sw. 



i * *°" J J r r 



JOHN DYKES 
Transcribed for carillon by John Klein 



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27 
"HOLY, HOLY, HOLY" 

In the multiple carillon consisting of English Bells and Harp Bells, the student is confronted with the 
problem of combining a minor-tuned set of bells with a major-tuned set. At first this will probably seem like 
an impossibility, but actually only one problem arises; and this can be quickly solved as soon as this relationship 
is understood. 

The subject of discord, often referred to in bells as a "clash", is a relative one indeed. In other words, 
what may sound discordant to one ear may sound perfectly concordant or pleasant to another. Nevertheless, this 
so-called "clash" has to be reckoned with, for it will probably be a topic of conversation among some of your 
listeners. 

At best, let us say, any "clash" between the minor-tuned English Bells and the major-tuned Harp Bells 
can absolutely be kept to a minimum. This amounts to merely learning one simple rule and then observing it 
in practice. 

In review, it will be recalled that when playing the English Bells in harmony, the intervals of the minor- 
third and the minor-sixth are to be avoided. Now, in playing the combination of the English Bells and the Harp 
Bells, the former two rules are reduced to one: the minor-sixth. This one interval, the minor-sixth, is the only 
interval that has to be reckoned with in playing the multiple carillon. As a matter of fact, it is best to say that 
the minor-sixth interval should be avoided unless it is somehow used as a passing note. 

The following example shows what happens when the minor-sixth interval is used between the melodic 
G on the English Bell and the accompanying B-natural on the Harp Bell. 



English Bells 



Harp Bells 
accompaniment 



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A "clash" is set up between the B-flat partial and hum tone on the English Bell against the pure B- 
natural in the Harp Bell accompaniment. This predicament occurs whether the minor-sixth is a part of a full 
chord or whether it is used as a single note in the harmony. Other than this one interval of the minor-sixth, 
every other interval can be used without fear of the so-called "clash". It is assumed, of course, that one will be 
cautious in using the sevenths and seconds! But even these sevenths and seconds, both major and minor, can 
be used wherein they are tastefully placed in a certain musical passage. 

In analyzing the hymn tune, "Holy, Holy, Holy", we find that the melody begins on the tonic, harmon- 
ized with a G-major chord. Since the English Bell has a rather strong minor third, sounding B-flat in the partial 
and the hum tone, it is advisable not to play the full G-major chord in the Harp accompaniment on this opening 
note because immediately a relative clash is set up between the B-flat in the English Bell and the B-natural in 
the Harp chord. The octave accompaniment on the Harp Bells is adequate. 

In the fifth bar of Letter A, on the fourth count, the minor-sixth interval is used comfortably because of 
the well-planned descending voice in the accompaniment. 

At the opening of Letter B a single note is struck in the Harp accompaniment (instead of an octave 
like the opening) because of the moving part in the lower voice. 

Observe the minor-second between the F-sharp and the G-natural on the second count of Letter B! Here 
it is wonderfully pleasant because it is used as a passing tone. 

Like in any theoretical subject, there are, of course, exceptions. For instance, in the final bar in Letter 
B, the complete G-major chord on the Harp Bells is used in accompanying the melodic note G on the English 
Bell. The excuses for defending its use here are two in number: first, the listener has heard the combination of 
these two sets of bells long enough that it is possible his ear has become attuned; and, secondly, the chord on 
the Harp Bells is rolled ahead of the entry of the melody bell, thereby allowing the harmony to have estab- 
lished itself sufficiently. Both of these points involve the elements of timing, of course. This same situation hap- 
pens again on the very final bar of the piece. 

If the hymn tune need be extended, — perhaps, let us say, to fill up a required amount of time during a 
program — a verse could be added by playing the hymn tune through first on English Bells alone in single 
notes. For the sake of variety, the melody should then be played an octave lower on the larger bells. If this 
is done, a slower tempo should be used so that these larger bells be allowed to ring their full sonorities. 

Interest is further maintained by alternating short passages on the Harp Bells alone, as in the first four 
bars of Letters C and D. 

In the penultimate measure you will note the dominant-seventh chord enters on the fourth count instead 
of on the third. This delay provides greater harmonic strength during the broad ritard. 



28 



25 -note English and Harp Bells 



Juaiiita 



8 



Moderately slow; rubato 

a tempo 



® 



SPANISH AIR 
Transcribed for carillon by John Klein 



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29 

"JU ANITA" 

This number will be found printed in many different arrangements and different keys. For the multiple 
25-note carillon of English and Harp Bells, it is here transposed to the Key of G. This position puts the Eng- 
lish Bells in the top octave, allowing ample room for the spacing of the Harp Bell accompaniment over its 
two-octave range. 

The piece should be played with tenderness, in a rubato style. 

After a simple two-bar introducticn on the Harp Bells, the melody enters on the English Bells, accom- 
panied throughout Letter A with a Harp Bell arpeggio figure. 

It will be noted that the minor-sixth interval between an English and a Harp Bell is never used through- 
out the entire number. Even on the last bar of Letter A, the Harp Bell accompaniment skips from G to D be- 
cause of the possibility of the Note B creating a disturbance between the English Bell with the Minor-sixth 
interval (as explained in the previous analysis of "Holy, Holy, Holy"). 

t 

An exciting effect on the Harp Bells is a short passage executed with the tremolando, as at Letter B. If 
done too long, the effect would become monotonous. It is difficult to indicate the correct manner of conclud- 
ing the tremolando without going into a complicated system of notation. On the second measure of Letter B 
where the tremolando approaches its ending, a ritard is suggested. Not only the left hand rhythmic accompani- 
ment must ritard, but also the tremolando itself must ritard. The tremolando should end with the final E in the 
left hand. A more correct notation would be written as follows: 



a , rit. 



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5 



At the conclusion of the tremolando in the sixth bar of Letter B, a definite pause should be observed 
in order to prepare a more graceful entrance for the English Bells on the melody in the following measure. By 
executing an adequate ritard in the Harp Bells tremolando, the pause will sound of natural duration, provided, 
of course, it is not too long. 

At Letter C, the melody is played in the left hand on the English Bells accompanied by high Harp Bells. 
This manner of playing is not only desirable but very frequently used in playing on all sized carillons. 

In the penultimate bar, the right hand helps to play the full arpeggio on the Harp Bells, immediately 
going back to the Swell to complete the melody. A full G-major arpeggio is played on the Harp Bells with both 
hands to complete the final chord. 



30 



25- note Flemish and Harp Bells 



Ye Sons and Daughters 

(0 Filii et Filiae) 



mm 



Moderate 

© 



TRADITIONAL FRENCH MELODY 
Transcribed for carillon by John Klein 



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31 

"YE SONS AND DAUGHTERS" 

The Flemish Bells played in octaves on the opening four bars appropriately establishes a majestic style 
befitting this old melody. The Harp Bells are not brought in until the final C-minor chord of the introduction, 
thereby offering a rather exciting sound when first heard after eight measures of Flemish Bells. 

At Letter B, the duet between the Flemish Bell melody and the Harp Bell accompaniment is heard 
over a C pedal-point. The style becomes refreshingly contrapuntal at Letter C for four bars, followed by a 
chordal rhythmic pattern as the hymn-tune draws toward its finish. 

The Harp Bells with their rather delicate timbre would be out of place played alone in this age-old hymn- 
tune. The very melodic line of this number is a symbol of strength. 

The student can observe that, although this piece is written for the minimum 25-note multiple carillon, 
there is much variety within the number to sustain the listener's interest. Violent and abrupt changes of style are, 
of course, not in keeping with good taste in any hymn-tune; however, by carefully planning such devices as 
used in this example, interest and freshness can be achieved with little creative effort. 



32 



25 -note Flemish and Harp Bells 



To a Wild Rose 



/£\With simple tenderness EDWARD macdowell 

. . ^^- , I I 1 I „ Transcribed for carillon by John Klein 



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"TO A WILD ROSE" 

One of the most important musical devices used in transcribing or adapting compositions for the caril- 
lon is the craft of transposing from one key to another. This is especially true when the adaptation is applied 
to a smaller instrument wherein the range is limited. MacDowell's'To a Wild Rose" exists in its original key 
of A Major. In order to play this composition on the 25-note multiple carillon, in the range from G to G, it 
is, if not necessary, advisable to transpose the music one tone lower to the key of G. 

Obviously, if we played the composition in its original key of A Major, the top notes would exceed 
the range of the G to G carillon. 

The craft of transposition can well be practiced in writing. In addition to the mere transposition, the 
number must also go through the process of adaptation. Therefore, it is advisable to work out the transcription 
very carefully during rehearsals; and by recording the transposition in manuscript, it becomes a permanent piece 
of property in the carillonneur's repertory. 

MacDowell instructed that his "To a Wild Rose" be played "with simple tenderness". In keeping with the 
tender style of this composition, the first four bars of the piece are played entirely on the Harp Bells on the Great 
Manual. In Bar 5 the Flemish Bells take up the melody, while the Harp Bells continue to supply the harmonic 
background, thereby providing an interesting variety of color between the two sets of bells. 

You will note that the same pattern of alternating between the Flemish and the Harp Bells is continued 
throughout the number. 

In the last bar in Letter C, the final note of the accompanying Harp arpeggio touches the same melodic 
pitch on which the Flemish Bell sounded the melody in the beginning of the measure. Inasmuch as a bell-note 
has a natural decay, the Harp Bells help to sustain the harmony of the measure throughout the customary ritard; 
and by finishing the phrase on the same pitch-note with the Harp Bells, the illusion is thereby created of hav- 
ing sustained the actual melody note. 

On the last four bars of the piece, after the conclusion of the fully rolled Harp chords, the left hand 
crosses over to the upper manual in order to touch the melody-notes. 



J. F. & B. 9337 



34 



37- note Flemish Bells 



Minuet 



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J. S. BACH 

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"MINUET" 
Here is a transcription for the carillon taken from one of Bach's well-known piano pieces. If the student 
will examine the original composition and compare it to this transcription, he will readily see that many changes 
exist in the notation, although the melodic and harmonic content remain the same. Here is a portion of the original: 



* 



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etc. 



In transcribing this for the Flemish Bell carillon, the passage literally is turned upside down. In the second bar, 
if the left hand were to play the G-major broken chord, the effect of the larger bells would completely over- 
power the right hand. 



J. F. & B. 9337 



36 



A i the fourth bar in Letter D the original notation is as follows: 



j'* J J 



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etc. 



Here again the position is reversed; the accompaniment is played by the smaller bells in the right hand, while 
the left hand plays the melody in octaves. 

In analyzing this number, one should have the original piano notation at hand. It is a clear example of 
what and how many notes to delete from the original version in order to obtain clarity when transcribing such 
music for the carillon. 

This book is not meant to be a treatise on the craft of musical arranging and transcribing; but it can- 
not be emphasized too strongly that this is an important requirement in the carillonneur's routine. Further- 
more, it must be remembered that piano-music is not carillon-music. 



37 -note Flemish and Harp Bells 



Gaudeamus Igitur 



Moderately slow 



TRADITIONAL 
Transcribed for carillon by John Klein 



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"GAUDEAMUS IGITUR" 

The anticipated broken chord at the beginning of each bar establishes the harmony for the Flemish Bells 
in octaves on the melodic line. The manner in which this broken chord is played stems from the traditional 
school of carillon playing. On the traditional carillon clavier, the performer has difficulty in rapidly crossing his 
hands; consequently the arpeggio is played in a step- wise manner. This is a legitimate, carillonistic device and 
it should become a natural part of the modern carrillonneur's technique. 

The Harp Bells, entering before measure 5, provide a new color as an accompaniment under the Flem- 
ish Bells as they continue to play the melody. 

At Letter B, the Harp Bells played alone give importance to the new color and provide a relief from 
the Flemish Bells. 

Beginning at the meno mosso (on the fifth bar of Letter B) you will note that when the harmony 
changes the Harp occasionally enters after the down-beat. This provides better clarity for the sound of the Harp 
Bells in the low register. 

In the second section (beginning two bars before Letter C) the Harp Bells play a fairly rapid contra- 
puntal line in the upper register against the Flemish Bells in octaves on the melody. 

At Letter D you will note that the Harp Bells maintain a pedal-point trill. With the Flemish Bells in 
octaves on the melody in the left hand, a grace-note touches the pedal-point D in the bass at the beginning of 
each measure, thereby helping to accentuate the force of the pedal-point. A bar is added in this section to 
assist the execution of an adequate ritard ascending into the upper register on the Flemish Bells. By adding this 
measure for the ritard at the conclusion of this section, a more graceful manner is made available for stopping 
the Harp trill. If the carillon has Expression Pedals, the Harp Bell trill should dimuendo at this point. 

The tremolando on the Flemish Bells near the end provides a sustaining quality in the traditional caril- 
lonistic style. (One should refer to the chapter under "Harp Bells" for a pertinent account on how to execute the 
tremolando. The discussion therein also applies to the tremolando on the Flemish Bells). 

A grateful ending is provided on the final bar by playing both hands on the full arpeggio G-chord on 
the Harp Bells. While approaching this final chord, the Flemish Bells meanwhile may have diminished with the 
use of the Expression Pedal. 



37-note Flemish and Harp Bells 



39 



The First Nowell 



Moderately slow 

Sw. 



TRADITIONAL ENGLISH 
Arranged for carillon by John Klein 



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41 
"THE FIRST NOWELL" 

The melody begins in the low register on the large bells in single notes. In the eighth measure the Harp 
Bells start a descending scale passage and continue to weave a step-like contrapuntal line beneath the Flemish 
Bell melody in the middle register. 

At Letter B the Harp Bells play the melody and harmony for four bars. 

As the carol continues into the second stanza at Letter C, the Flemish Bells this time play in two-part 
harmony; and again the same Harp Bell step-like accompaniment enters at measure 8. Above this contrapuntal 
line the Flemish Bells play in octaves with a harmony note added in the middle. Meanwhile, the piece has been 
continually maintaining interest without adding new and foreign idea-material. To further strengthen the flow 
of the number, the tremolando is brought in just before Letter D. The left hand plays the complete harmony 
on the downbeat of each bar on the Harp Bells, after which it moves immediately to the Swell to play the de- 
scending figure on the lower Flemish Bells. The listener hears three colors during the passage: 

1. the full Harp Bell harmony, 

2. the small answering-figure on the low Flemish Bells, and 

3. the melody in tremolando on the high Flemish Bells. 

The Key signature of this carol as found in Hymnals is usually in D Major. As mentioned before, it 
is frequently necessary to transpose numbers either up or down in order to take full advantage of the range 
of the carillon. 

Diminuendos and crescendos are not indicated because of the precarious results that often ensue during 
outside playing. However, this does not mean that dynamic levels cannot or should not change. It is up to the 
discretion of the carillonneur as to how much shading he wants to inject in his playing; but, in any case, he 
should be cautious. One can maintain a very expressive style of playing without the use of the Expression Pedals. 



42 



49- note Flemish Bells 



Sanctissima 



4- 



Moderately slow 



SICILIAN MARINERS, 1794 
Transcribed for carillon by John Klein 



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"O SANCTISSIMA" 

This stately hymn tune is played throughout in a simple style. It opens with the sonorous tenor bells 
on the melody, accompanied with an occasional deep bass bell. In measure 6 of Letter A, the bass F-sharp 
is played on the second count instead of on the down-beat because of the closeness to the previous low E. On 
the last bar of Letter A, the treble bells may be diminished with the use of the divided Expression Pedal. The 
repeat of the first eight bars is optional. 

At Letter B the melody is harmonized in thirds in the upper register. The melody is reinforced an oc- 
tave lower. Doubling of the melody is always a good device to use in carillon-playing, for when a melody is 
harmonized, often times the single bell on the melodic line is not strong enough to penetrate. 

At the fifth bar of Letter D, three octaves carry the melody. The harmony in this passage is inserted in 
sixths above the melody in the bass line. 

Two measures before the end the tremolo sustains the melody during the ritard. The tremolo should be 
released with the sounding of the bass bells on the second and fourth counts. On the final bar the tremolando 
is released as the left hand crosses the right to play the high C-major broken chord. This is one way of getting 
rid of a tremolo that must be exposed until the very end. The cross-hand high chord blots out what may pos- 
sibly be an uneven ending with the tremolando. 



J. F. & B. 9337 



44 



49-note Flemish and Harp Bells 



Sweet Hour of Prayer 



Slowly 



H 



Sw. 



WILLIAM BRADBURY 
Transcribed for carillon by John Klein 



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"SWEET HOUR OF PRAYER" 

A ninety-eight bell carillon is certainly an instrument of comparatively large proportion; however, this 
does not mean that the larger the carillon the more elaborate the music should be. Most of the time the sim- 
plest transcription played in a relaxed manner makes for the best carillon music and constitutes the wisest 
choice in programming. 

In this hymn tune the melody is played throughout on the Flemish Bells, accompanied in a simple style 
on the Harp Bells. In keeping with good taste, the transcription is an excellent example of sheer simplicity. 

A sparce variety is achieved by changing the registers of the solo Flemish Bells. In the last two bars the 
right hand goes down to the Great to help fill out the rich Harp Bell chords. 



J. F. k B. 9337 



46 



49 -note Flemish and Harp Bells 



The Swan 



And a 

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SAINT- SAENS 
Transcribed for carillon by John Klein 


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48 

THE SWAN 

The Albeni-like accompaniment is simplified from the original in adapting this famous composition 
for the multiple carillon. 

Again, a sparce variety is achieved by changing the registers of the solo Flemish Bells, as at Letter B. 
Here the melody is playing in the tenor range for four measures with the sequence answered in the high treble 
bells. 

At Letter C, instead of the single octaves, the melody may be tremoloed for the next eight measures. On 
the ninth bar the piece should again be played as written. To continue the tremolando to the end would pre- 
senl an awkward problem at the Coda (Letter D). First of all, if the tremolo is used up to the Coda, the final G 
in the melody would also have to be sustained to the very last bar. This would not only be a technical feat in as 
much as it would have to sound well, but it would probably be in monotonously bad taste. The continual reiter- 
ation of the octave bells in the tremolando is certainly not the equivalent of the delicate sustaining power of the 
violincello, as written for in the original score. 

To execute the finger-tremolando on the melody at Letter C requires great skill, indeed, for the wide melo- 
dic skips require expert fingering and accuracy. It is certainly worth a try; however, if the student is in any way 
in doubt about the probability of success, it would be better to simply play the passage in straight octaves as 

written. 



61- note Flemish Bells 



49 



Old Folks at Home 



Slowly; with expression 



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STEPHEN FOSTER 
Transcribed for carillon by John Klein 



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50 

"OLD FOLKS AT HOME" 

At the \er\ opening, note that the D Bourdon Bell is struck slightly ahead of the other notes in the chord. 

The harmonic compatability of the remainder of the opening chord with the octave F-sharp on the melody 
(its minor-third partial sounding A) and the low A a fifth above the Bourdon D (its minor-third partial sound- 
ing c i tend to obliterate the F-natural minor-third partial that sounded on the single low D ahead of the rest of 
the chord. 

The melody is played in octaves throughout except for the two bars of tremolando in Letter C. 

Since the melody is played in the middle and low registers of the carillon, the fills and embellishments 
are more appropriately executed in the upper register on smaller bells. The filling-in of harmony in pianistic ar- 
peggio style is not applicable to carillon playing. Such passages will tend to overpower the melodic line because 
of the dynamic strength of the large bells when played in the same register. 

On the fourth bar of Letter A, the first inversion of the A-chord is used. If the root-position A were sound- 
ed on the first beat of this bar, a strong C-natural would be heard because of the minor-third partial. 

In Letter C, variety in style is provided by the tremolando for four measures. This is a legitimate musical 
device used frequently in carillon playing. It is advisable not to execute the tremolando too rapidly. At the con- 
clusion of bar 2 in Letter C, taper the tremolando with a slight ritard or tenuto in order to avoid an abrupt end- 
ing in the transition. 

The cadence on the diminished-seventh chord in Letter D is executed with both hands. This is also a 
legitimate carillonistic device stemming from the traditional carillonneur's technique. Note that the final note of 
the cadence is in pitch with the latest melody note. As mentioned earlier, this extends the illusion in the listener's 
ear that the melody is being sustained. 



51 



CELESTA BELLS 



The Celesta Bells covers the same 61 -note range as 
the Harp Bells, tuned in chromatic sequence, as follows: 



8- 



S 



There is, of course, the three-manual carillon where- 
in the Celesta Bells are assigned to the middle keyboard. 
(See chapter titled "Three Manual Carillon"). 

The timbre of the Celesta Bells is keen and brilliant, 
yet they express a delicate brightness. Their usefulness 
either alone or in conjunction with the Harp Bells is 
invaluable. 

Like the Harp Bell, the Celesta Bell has selected 
octave tuning in its partial series arrangement. Striking 
Middle C, the Celesta Bell's partials sound as follows: 



Also, like the Harp Bells the Celesta Bells are available 
in 25-note, 37-note, and 49-note ranges: 



25 -note Celesta Bells 



~*5 



37-note Celesta Bells 



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49-note Celesta Bells 



3 



As a general rule, the Celesta Bells are considered 
to be the third set of bells added to a carillon. In other 
words, a 25-note range multiple carillon consisting of 
Flemish and Harp Bells distributed over two keyboards, 
may have the Celesta Bells added to the lower keyboard. 
This applies to all the ranges including the 37-note, 49- 
note and 61 -note multiple carillons. 



IE 



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The Celesta Bells, when added to a carillon, assume 
unusual importance in their functions as another tone 
color. At first hand they would seem to have three main 
uses, as follows: 

1. for use in solo or chordal passages; 

2. as an accompanimental set of bells; and 

3. for use in conjunction with the Harp Bells. 
However, when one considers the infinite varieties as 
used in combination with the Flemish Bells and the Harp 
Bells throughout a wide pitch range, their usefulness 
becomes limitless. 

Through the manipulation of a switch or a stop- 
tablet on the console, the Celesta Bells can be skillfully 
used for brief interruptions during a Harp Bell passage. 
They can be brought on or taken off instantaneously for 
even the punctuation of a note or two. 

The Celesta Bells are more spritely than the Harp 
Bells and can, therefore, be played in a faster tempo. 
For tower playing, when the Celesta Bells are added to 
the Harp Bells, there is a certain "edge" or "bite" fixed 
to the tone that enables these smaller bells to cut through 
to a better advantage. 

In the following composition, "Blue Bells of Scot- 
land", four transcriptions cover the 25-, 37-, 49-, and 
61 -note ranges of the Celesta Bells. 



52 



Celesta Bells 

25-note, 37-note, 49-note, and 61-note ranges 



The Blue Bells of Scotland 



25 -note Celesta Bells 
Moderate 

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OLD SCOTTISH AIR 
Transcribed for carillon by John Klein 



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55 

"THE BLUE BELLS OF SCOTLAND" 

The Celesta Bells, like the Harp Bells, are frequently available in various pitch ranges; consequently this 
transcription of "The Blue Bells of Scotland" is, therefore, presented in four different versions; the 25-note, 37- 
note, 49-note, and 61 -note ranges. 

As the compass of the Celesta Bells increases, the key signature also changes. Like the Harp Bell trans- 
cription of "Greensleeves" on page 22, this exhibit again illustrates the frequent necessity of having to transpose 
music for the various sized carillons available. As the range of the Celesta Bells increases, the style of the piece 
may change and become more elaborate; however, this is not obligatory nor is it wholeheartedly recommended. 
Many times the simplest transcription is the most rewarding, regardless of the size of the carillon. 

The four versions of this piece are, of course, written in related keys; however, it must be remembered 
that this exhibit is meant to illustrate the expansion of the various ranges of the Celesta Bells and is not presented 
to be programmed in its entirety because of its length. 

For the 25-note compass, the Key of G places the melody in the upper range, thereby allowing sufficient 
space for harmonizing. Note that broken chords in the melodic line are used somewhat sparingly. Throughout 
Letter A the melody is harmonized in thirds, except for the broken chords at the opening and closing. In the 
third bar of Letter C, the left hand crosses the right to execute the after-beat rhythmic accompaniment. 

The 37-note version is written in the Key of C, thereby taking advantage of the three-octave range. Letter 
D is written in the same style as the opening of Letter A (25-note range), except that here the harmony is fuller 
and more complete. At Letter E octaves reinforce the melody in the low register. Remembering that the Celesta 
Bells sound an octave higher than the Harp Bells and that their entire timbre is quite sparkling and light, thick 
chords in the lowest register are quite compatible; and the reinforcement of bass octaves in the melodic line 
(such as in Letter E), is a pleasant-sounding and useful device. 

In the third stanza for the 49-note range, the transposition moves to the Key of F. To utilize the extreme 
top range, the left hand crosses the right to execute the after-beat rhythmic accompaniment in bars three and four 
of Letter G. This also creates a delicateness in the variety of the Celesta Bells and prepares for the entrance of the 
melody in the lower register at Letter H. The sustained tremolando in the right hand yields to the pronounce- 
ment of the left hand melody, concluding the phrase with the arpeggio-chord on the second bar of Letter H. 
Again, the left hand crosses the right in the third measure of Letter I, alternating between the very lowest and 
the highest bell. 

For the 6 1 -note range, the piece is written in the Key of B-flat. Octaves take the melody through Letter 
J above a slightly active accompaniment. At Letter K, broken chords in the bass play the melody, while a tremo- 
lando in thirds reinforce the melody in the upper register, concluding with the full arpeggio-chord on the second 
bar (of Letter K). Up until Letter L, the very top register of the Celesta Bells has not been used. The delay in 
exposing these tiny bells until the end, presents a very telling and new fledged sound. 



"AMERICANA" BELLS 

The "Americana" Bells carillon is, of course, a 
multi-toned instrument consisting of either two, three, 
or four sets of differently tuned bells; and the chromatic 
ranges can vary from one of 25 notes to the full range 
of 61 notes. However, in this particular instance, in order 
to adequately discuss the "Americana" Bells Carillon, we 
will use as an example a moderate sized instrument con- 
sisting of 159 bells. 

This versatile instrument is actually three carillons 
in one, comprising the full range of 61 Flemish Bells on 
the Swell Manual, and Harp and Celesta Bells in the 
49-note range on the Great. Each keyboard is under sep- 
arate expression. The 61 Flemish Bells divide between 
Middle C and C-sharp, one Expression Pedal controlling 
the treble bells, and the other, the tenor and bass bells. 

Stop tablets on the Great Manual individually op- 
erate the Harp and Celesta Bells which can be used 
either separately or together. On the Swell Manual the 
Flemish Bells are available at the octave pitch by means 
of a coupler tablet; and in this case there is also an auto- 
matic, variable tremolando effecting these bells. 

The "Americana" Bells is a carillon approximately 
half the size of the large "Carillon Americana" Bells. 
Whereas the "Americana" Bells instrument is confined 
to the 61 Flemish Bells on the Swell and the Harp and 
Celesta Bells on the Great, the full "Carillon Americana" 
has, in addition to the 32-note Pedal Clavier, two more 
sets of bells: the Quadra and Minor Tierce Bells, both in 
the full 5 -octave ranges. Also, all of the sets of bells on 
the full "Carillon Americana", not only appear at their 
octave pitches, but are available on both keyboards and 
the Pedal; and moreover, a dual tremolando affects all 
sets of bells both on the Swell and the Great Manuals. 

"The "Americana" Bells is one of the most versatile 
carillons available, being adequate and suitable for any 
installation and capable of satisfying the most advanced 
carillonneur. Its resources are unlimited, for with the 
wide range of the three different sets of bells offering 
infinite variety in color, this carillon adapts itself to al- 
most any music. Little transposition is necessary on a 
carillon of this size. It is competently qualified to play the 
most exacting repertoire, either in the traditional or the 
contemporary style. 



57 



58 



Americana Bells 

61- note Flemish Bells, 49-note Harp and Celesta Bells 

The Emerald Theme 

Especially written for and first performed at 

The International Carillon Festival 

Cobh, Ireland; May 1958 



Sw. Flemish Bells 
Gt. Harp Bells 

Slowly; ru bato 

Sw. a"" 



JOHN KLEIN 



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61 

"THE EMERALD THEME" 

The notation of this composition is distributed over three staves thereby maintaining a consistent and 
authoritative direction for the assignment of the position of the hands. The melody on the Flemish Bells is as- 
signed to the top stave, played on the Swell. The two bracketed staves accommodate the accompaniment on the 
Great, always to be played by both hands. The execution necessitates the continual movement of the right hand 
from one manual to the other. 

With a minimum amount of practice, this elementary technique can easily be mastered. In a sense, it is 
almost obligatory to play in this manner and style on the extended range of the multiple carillon, for in alterna- 
ting the right hand between the Swell and the Great, the accompanimental harmony can be supplemented with 
total flexibility. 

Since the bell is a percussive musical sound wherein its characteristics include the strike-tone and its 
natural decay, there is no reason to sustain the keys for the metrical value of the written notation. Therefore, the 
carillonneur is perfectly free to take his hands from the keyboard, for once the bell is struck, there is no way to 
dampen the tone. Accordingly then, the continual alternating of the hands between keyboards is a legitimate, 
carillonistic technical device. 

It will now be noted that the music, when applied to the larger and extended range of the multiple caril- 
lon, will include directions for registration. On the Schulmerich "Americana" Bells Carillon, there are three sets 
of bells: the Flemish Bells on the Swell, and the Harp and Celesta Bells on the Great. 

In the introduction of "The Emerald Theme", only the Harp Bells should accompany the high Flemish 
Bells, as indicated in the registration directions preceding the piece. At Letter A, the Octave is added to the Flem- 
ish Bells on the Swell; and direction is given to add the Celesta Bells on the Great for the accompaniment. At 
Letter B the Celesta Bells are to be taken off, allowing the Harp Bells to play the passage alone. In the fourth 
measure of Letter B, the Flemish Octave should be taken off, and then added again just before Letter C. The 
Celesta Bells are again added to the Great at Letter C and are thrown off for the Harp Bells to complete the 
Coda. 

Herein again lies an advantage for the carillonneur to execute his changes in registration because he does 
not need to keep his fingers fixed to the keys. If one will relax while playing, there is more than ample time to 
lift the hands from the keyboard and make changes in registration with complete accuracy. 



62 



Americana Bells 

61-note Flemish Bells, 49-note Harp and Celesta Bells 

111 Mirabell Garden 

Especially written for and first performed at 
The Salzburg Music Festival 
Salzburg, Austria; August 1959 



Sw. Flemish Bells 

Gt. Harp and Celesta Bells 



JOHN KLEIN 



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"IN MIRABELL GARDEN" 

This composition presents a genuine challenge for the carillonneur if he is to master a style of playing 
that requires extreme sensitivity and expressiveness. To convey a meaningful and significant thought in musical 
performance one must be capable of actually feeling within one's self a certain sensitivity and expressiveness; 
and, in addition, he must acquire the art of phrasing and the skill of governing mechanical expression in order 
to transmit and communicate his musical ideas. Herein lies the challenge in this composition, for the number must 
be played throughout with a sensitive, rubato phrasing, coupled with the use of the mechanical Expression Pedals 
for dynamic levels of balance, diminuendos and crescendos. 

At Letter A the notation is distributed over three staves, hereby assigning the melody to the top stave, 
played on the Swell; and the bracketed staves accommodating the accompaniment on the Great, always to be 
played by both hands. The execution necessitates the continual movement of the right hand from one manual to 
the other. 

It would be difficult to analyze and suggest the placement of every nuance, measure by measure, and 
beat by beat. Instead, it is suggested that the carillonneur in performing this composition, play it with the highest 
degree of tasteful expression, always searching for every possible shade of colorful meaning and feeling. 

In the second measure of the second-ending, the tremolando should be added on the fourth count. The 
glissando near the end should not ascend too rapidly. The climax at this point is a thrilling sound, indeed, on the 
carillon, and, from a relatively closed position, the Expression Pedal should be opened during the ascending glis- 
sando and approach its full volume as the final chord is reached. 

In order to gracefully get rid-of or conclude the tremolando just before the final arpeggio-chord, the 
Flemish Bells should gradually diminish until they have melted into the Harp Bells, disappearing in volume 
beneath the final full chord. 

A purely mechanical method to shape a ritard on the tremolandoed chord is to reduce the variable Speed 
Control of the Tremolando. This can be accomplished by skillfully using the left hand to turn the dial, reaching 
above the keyboard perhaps four times during the broad ritard between the last four eighth-notes. The diminu- 
endo should take place simultaneously as described in the preceding paragraph. 



j. F. & B. 9337 



67 



THE THREE MANUAL CARILLON FLEMISH, CELESTA AND HARP BELLS 



The three manual carillon, consisting of Flemish, 
Celesta, and Harp Bells, each set assigned to a separate 
keyboard, can vary in its chromatic ranges from an in- 
strument of 25 -note keyboards to the full five-octave 
range of 61 notes. In this particular instance, we will 
use as an example a moderate sized three manual in- 
strument consisting of 75 bells; i.e., 25 bells assigned to 
each keyboard, each with a range of two octaves, ex- 
tending from G below Middle C to two octaves above. 

The nomenclature given the keyboards from top to 
bottom is Swell, Great, and Choir. Like on the two 
manual carillon, the Flemish Bells are playable from the 
top keyboard: the Swell. This leaves the middle and the 
lower manuals for distribution of the Celesta and Harp 
Bells: the Celesta Bells on the Great or the middle key- 
board; and the Harp Bells on the Choir or the lowest 
keyboard. 

Since the Harp Bells are generally used as an ac- 
companimental set of bells subsidiary to the larger solo 
Flemish Bells, the same logic applies to the Harp being 
subsidiary to the Celesta Bells. In musical language, any 
tonal timbre whose source and partials appear at the 
octave, will by natural law, stand out above the lower 
sounding instrument. This law is especially true wherein 
no artificial means of dynamic levels and controls are 
available; and such is the case in the Celesta Bells stand- 
ing out above the accompanimental Harp Bells since they 
are tuned and sound an octave higher. Consequently, 
when each set of bells is playable from a separate 
keyboard, the Harp Bells become subsidiary to the 
Celesta Bells and instinctively assume an accompani- 
mental function. 

It must be pointed out here that the Celesta Bells 
take on a much larger quality of tone when played 
through the tower, compared to listening to the same 
Celesta on a monitor speaker inside. Therefore, it is of 
value to make use of the Celesta as a solo set of bells, 
accompanied by the Harp Bells, especially for tower- 
playing. On the three-manual carillon then, we have two 
sets of solo bells: the original set of Flemish Bells on 
the top keyboard, and the Celesta Bells appearing on the 
middle keyboard. The third set, the Harp Bells, remain 
on the lowest manual as a subordinate instrument. 

In explaining the Celesta Bells as providing a sec- 
condary set of "solo bells", it does not necessarily mean 
that these bells should be expected to exclusively and 
merely play single notes, as the term "solo" might imply. 
On the contrary, the availability of the Celesta Bells on 
a separate keyboard actually provides a trichromic timbre 
or color, in contrast to the Flemish and Harp Bells. In 
fact, that third timbre or color provided by the Celesta 
Bells is just as useful in executing chordal passages as 
it is in single melodic or contrapuntal notes. None of the 
sets of bells on the three-manual carillon is restricted 
to single-note playing. 



To retrogress for a moment: the Celesta Bells are 
frequently available on a two-manual carillon, but always 
playable from the same keyboard as the Harp Bells. Each 
set, by the manipulation of a stop tablet, can either be 
played alone or both together; and they can be brought 
into play instantly and changed continually. 

However, on the three-manual carillon wherein the 
Celesta Bells are assigned to a separate keyboard, the 
antiphonal effects between the two sets of bells becomes 
effortless. Even on a rather quick ostinato accompani- 
mental figure, the mere transference of the hand from 
one manual to another can supply a down-beat chord- 
cluster on the Harp Bells, followed on the middle key- 
board with the remainder of the accompaniment-figure 
executed on the Celesta Bells. Herein there is a most 
attractive, continual change of timbre or color executed 
in an elementary fashion merely by switching the hand 
from one keyboard to the other. (Meanwhile, of course, 
the Flemish Bells are carrying the melody). 

Short passages played by both hands can be as- 
signed to the Celesta Bells on the Great Manual, followed 
by an "echo effect", or the sequence answered on the 
Harp Bells on the Choir Manual. Arpeggio ranges may 
be increased or decreased by an octave because of the 
pitch-difference between the two sets of bells. In other 
words, on an ascending arpeggio the range may be in- 
creased to three octaves by executing the arpeggio on 
two octaves of the Harp Bells and transferring to the 
Celesta Bells to complete the third octave. If this par- 
ticular exposition needs clarification, one must recall the 
difference of one octave in pitch between the Celesta and 
Harp Bells, i.e., the Celesta tuned one octave higher 
than the Harp Bells. Also, musical interruptions and 
punctuations may be attractively executed in a reciprocal 
interplay between the two sets of bells, especially in in- 
troductions, episodes and interludes, and coda passages. 

Although the above paragraph presents many fav- 
orable suggestions for interchanges between the Celesta 
and Harp Bells, there still remains the important func- 
tion of the Celesta Bells alternating with the Flemish 
Bells. For example, a phrase of a hymn-tune may be 
played solo on the Flemish Bells, answered by the solo 
Celesta Bells on the second phrase, all the while accom- 
anied by the usual Harp Bells. 

On some carillons there is a coupler device opera- 
tive on the middle manual, bringing the Harp Bells up 
from the Choir to be played simultaneously with the 
Celesta Bells on the Great, thereby providing still another 
solo or tone-color. 

In conclusion, the three-manual carillon is certainly 
a versatile instrument, indeed, offering the carillonneur 
kaleidoscopic possibilities for creative invention. The 
feasabilities and the potentialities of the three-manual 
carillon are almost unmeasurable. 



68 Three Manual Carillon 

Swell: 25-note Flemish Bells, Great: 25-note Celesta Bells, Choir: 25-note Harp Bells 

The God of Abraham Praise 



With dignity: not fast 

® 



LEONI; HEBREW MELODY 
Arrang-ed for carillon by John Klein 



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"THE GOD OF ABRAHAM PRAISE" 

The first part of this well-known hymn-tune is played in two-part harmony on the Flemish Bells. At the 
bar before Letter B, a new color, the Harp Bells, enters on a descending scale passage which continues to weave 
its moving line beneath a third color, the Celesta Bells in octaves on the melody. At Letter C the Flemish Bells 
return to play the melody, again harmonized in two parts like the beginning. 

On the second verse at Letter D, the melody on the Celesta Bells is accompanied by the Harp Bells in sim- 
ple style. At bar 5 a short passage is played entirely on the Celesta Bells, finishing the phrase with the Harp Bells 
punctuating a pedal, rhythmic accompaniment beneath three-part harmony. 

When the Flemish Bells take up the melody at Letter E, the choir to Creat Coupler could be added, 
thereby coupling the Harp with the Celesta Bells for the contrapuntal line in the accompaniment. Approaching 
the end at Letter F, the Flemish Bells play in harmony in addition to the Harp and Celesta Bells in the left hand. 

With the Three Manual Carillon, a wide variety of color-changes can be achieved with a minimum amount 
of effort. In addition to the combinations illustrated in this composition, one could also use the Harp Bells alone; 
and, in some cases, the Harp Bells could play the melody to a certain accompaniment on the Celesta Bells. 

It might be justifiable to call attention to the quarter-rests at the ends of some of the measures. Although 
there is no way of stopping the tone at these points, thereby observing the accuracy of the time-value of the notes, 
they do allow and indicate particular clarity in the notation which envelops the beginnings and endings of phrases. 



J. F. k B. 9337 



70 



THE SCHULMERICH "CARILLON AMERICANA" BELLS 



The Schlllmerich "Carillon Americana" Bells in- 
strument literally is a sj mphony of bells. The zenith of 
all carillons, it stands as a towering giant in the world 
of creative craftmanship. The maturity of its design in 
both mechanical versatility and quality of tone is the 
ultimate of perfection. 

The size of the "Carillon Americana" does not de- 
termine its greatness, for it is the quality of the sound 
of its bells and the ingenuity of its design that make this 
carillon truly a masterpiece. Consisting of five different 
sets of bells, it is, in a sense, five carillons in one. The 
canllonneur has at his command unlimited color com- 
binations. In simulation, he can orchestrate his music. 
The Schulmerich "Carillon Americana" Bells instrument 
is, therefore, a symphony of bells. 

Comprising five sets of bells, each of 61 notes, the 
specification is as follows: 

Flemish Bells 
Harp Bells 
Quadra Bells 
Celesta Bells 
Minor Tierce Bells 

The different sets of bells are controlled by tilt- 
tablets placed in banks above the keyboards. Each set 
of bells, besides appearing in its fundamental pitch, is 
also available at its octave. In organ nomenclature, this 
is the equivalent of 8 -foot and 4-foot pitches. 

From two 61 -note keyboards and a full 32-note 
pedal clavier, the carillonneur performs somewhat in the 
manner of an organist in that he disperses his hands over 
two manuals and he uses his both feet. 

Three to four Expression Pedals control the dynam- 
ic levels. The automatic variable Tremolando controls 
and affects all the individual sets of bells (as explained 
elsewhere). 

Since the Flemish, Harp, and Celesta Bells have 
been discussed under separate chapters, we now turn to 
the tonal make-up, and later, the function of, the Quadra 
Bells and the Minor Tierce Bells. 

First, the Quadra Bells. The range covers five oc- 
taves, as follows: 

g 



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The Quadra Bell, like the Harp and Celesta Bell, 
also has selected octave-tuning in its partial series ar- 
rangement. Striking Middle-C, the partials of the Quadra 



Bell sound as follows, (the whole notes designating the 
intensities): 



fe 



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The timbre of the Quadra Bells is more precise than the 
Harp Bells, yet not as linear as the Celesta Bells. Like 
the Harp Bells, the Quadra Bells have a very definite 
depth and solidity of tone, but they are more piquant and 
have a more comprehensive quality. The above chart in- 
dicates the intensity of the octave, indicating there is a 
slight "bite" or "edge" to the tonal-make-up. 

The three basic functions of the Quadra Bells for 
use in the Schulmerich "Carillon Americana" are as fol- 
lows: 1) Color, 2) Reinforcement and 3) Mixing. For 
a variety in color, they can be used either as solo-bells 
or played in chordal passages. As reinforcement to the 
Harp Bells, they provide a preciseness to the tone, es- 
pecially for outside or tower-playing. The mixing of the 
Quadra Bells with other tone sources furnishes unlimited 
tonal varieties; as examples: the mixture of the 8 -foot 
Quadra Bells with the 4-foot Minor Tierce Bells, or the 
4-foot Quadra Bells with the 8-foot Harp Bells, etc. 

The Minor Tierce Bells is the last set of bells to 
be explained in this book. The chromatic range of the 
Minor Tierce Bells is the same as the other four sets 
of bells, as follows: 



8: 



S 



These bells are quite different in timbre from all the 
other bells. Striking Middle-C, the series of partials is 
arranged as follows: 



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The minor-third is close to the synthesized strike- 
tone (indicated by the whole note below Middle C) . Two 
fifths are present: the first immediately above the second 
partial, and the second an octave and a fifth higher. 

The salient tonal characteristic of this set of bells 
is almost deceptively delicate. The minor-third is some- 
what unobtrusive, yet with its fundamental there is sort 



71 



of a veneered glaze surrounding its tone. These bells 
can function directly or indirectly; i.e., they can be used 
alone or they can be added to another set of bells. When 
mixed with another tonal source, they produce a new 
lustre and add a certain gloss to the tone. 

Their decay is delicate and brief. In the middle and 
upper register these Minor Tierce Bells sound like a 
"polished twinkle"; in the low register they create a 
mysterious, "feathery strum". 

Performing on the Schulmerich "Carillon Ameri- 
cana" Bells instrument requires the same amount of 
devotion and preparation as any other carillon. Its size 
does not make it more difficult to handle. On the con- 
trary, its versatility makes it even easier to play than 
smaller instruments because of the limitless variety of 
tonal effects that can be produced. 

To sum up this symphony of bells — the Schulmer- 
ich "Carillon Americana" — the complete comparison 
of the partial series of the various sets of bells is as 
follows (always striking Middle C): 



Flemish Bells 



(-»-) 



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The Console— Schulmerich "Carillon Americana" Bells Instrument 



72 



Carillon Americana" Bells 



Nobody Knows the Trouble I've Seen 



Sw. Flemish Bells 

Qt. Harp Bells 

Ped. Qnadra and Minor Tierce Bells 

Moderately slow 



® 



AMERICAN SPIRITUAL 
Arranged for carillon by John Klein 



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"NOBODY KNOWS THE TROUBLE I'VE SEEN" 

Here is an example of a well-known, simple melody arranged for the versatile Schulmerich "Carillon 
Americana" Bells instrument wherein three sets of bells, each of different timbre, simultaneously play their 
own part. The basic harmony is played by the left hand on the low, rich Harp Bells, while an ostinato figure is 
played in the upper register of the pedal clavier, on the small Minor Tierce and Quadra Bells. Against the har- 
mony and the ostinato figure, the Flemish Bells play the melody, beginning at Letter A. 

On the third bar of Letter B, both hands play the anticipated chords on the Great, immediately follow- 
ed by the three-octave melody on the Swell played by both hands. 

As explained in a previous chapter, since the bells produce a percussive sound with their characteristic 
strike-tone and natural decay, there is no reason to sustain the fingers on the keys; consequently, the hands are 
free to rapidly alternate between the two keyboards. 



J. F. & B. 9337 



7 1 



Schulmerich "Carillon Americana" 

Americana March for the Carillon 

Especially written for and first performed at 
The World's Fair 
Brussels, Belgium; 1958 



Sw. Flemish Bells 8', 4', Harp Bells 8' 
Gt. Harp, Quadra and Celesta Bells 8' , 4' 
Ped. Flemish, Harp and Quadra Bells 



JOHN KLEIN 



Moderately slow; with a powerful drive 

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Copyright, MCMLXI, by J. FISCHER & BRO 

International Copyright Secured 
Mechanical and all other rights reserved 



® 



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"AMERICANA MARCH FOR THE CARILLON" 

This march should be played in a very strict tempo, with an incessantly powerful drive. The Harp Bells 
added to the Flemish Bells in the left-hand rhythm surround the tone with a reverberating depth and supply the 
giant, bass bells with even more force. Preceding the fifth bar in Letter A, the Quadra and Celesta Bells at 8' and 
4' should be added to the Flemish Bells. There is adequate time to manipulate the stop tablets during the half- 
note at the beginning of the bar for, as previously stated, the carillonneur is perfectly free to take his hands away 
from the keyboard once the note or chord has been struck. 

At Letter B the Harp and Quadra Bells on the Swell should be taken off for the tremolando passage that 
follows on the Flemish Bells. Just before this point the left hand commences the quarter-note and triplet rhythm 
on the Great, using the pre-set Harp, Celesta, and Quadra Bells. The glissandos on the Swell during this passage 
should be executed with a certain dramatic sweep simultaneously with the slight opening and closing of the Ex- 
pression Pedal. 

Two bars before Letter C, stop changes again take place. Precisely on the third count (in the second bar 
before Letter C) the right hand must be released. Exactly on the fourth count the Tremolando must be taken off; 
and with definite accuracy the Harp and Quadra Bells must be added to the Swell on the first count of the next 
measure. All of these stop tablet manipulations should be practiced with as much diligence as one would devote 
to the accurate playing of notes and correct fingering. Nothing can be left to chance. If the putting-on and tak- 
ing-off of stop tablets is not rehearsed in set rhythm over and over again until absolute precision is acquired, then 
the carillonneur is not ready to perform the piece in a public performance. 

By all means, one should under-estimate the tempo of this march and not be tempted to play it too fast. 
The exact tempo can result in a very dramatic performance; but if it is hurried, it can only cause chaos. 



J. F. & B. 9337 



77 



Editor's note: 

THE MUSICAL ADAPTATIONS, TRANSCRIP- 
TIONS, AND ARRANGEMENTS (BELONGING TO 
THE PUBLIC DOMAIN) ARE ESPECIALLY WRIT- 
TEN FOR THE CARILLON, INCLUDING THREE 
ORIGINAL COMPOSITIONS, ALL PUBLISHED 
HEREIN. 



79 
CARILLON RECORDINGS 



ALLELUIA RCA ( Belgium ) ; EP A-9622 

Played by George Clement 

THE ARLINGTON CARILLON International; LP-5015 

Played by Anton Brees 

JOHN KLEIN PLAYS THE CARILLON RCA (Belgium); EPA 9590 

Played by John Klein 

MELODIES AT THE CARILLON RCA (Belgium); EPA 9610 

Played by John Klein 

THE BELLS ON CHRISTMAS MORN Decca; DL 8792 

Played by Robert Carwithen 

THE SCHULMERICH "CARILLON 

AMERICANA" BELLS Schulmermich; SC-100 

Played by John Klein 

CAROLING ON THE CARILLON Columbia; CL-1056 

Played by John Klein 

AROUND THE WORLD ON A CARILLON Columbia; WL-135 

Played by John Klein 

A CHRISTMAS SOUND SPECTACULAR 

RCA- Victor; LPM-2023; (Stereo) LSP-2023 
Carillon with Orchestra and Chorus 
Played by John Klein 

THE NEW SOUND AMERICA LOVES BEST 

RCA-Victor; LPM-2237; (Stereo) LSP-2237 
Carillon with Orchestra and Chorus 
Played by John Klein 

THE CALL OF THE CARILLON 

RCA-Victor; LPM-2255; (Stereo) LSP-2255 
Carillon with Chorus and Organ 
Played by John Klein 

THE BELLS OF NIAGARA Americana Records; AR-3 (EP) 

Played by John Klein 

BELLS FROM THE SKIES Americana Records; AP-2 (EP) 

Played by John Klein 

THE BELLS OF PEACE Americana Records; AR-4 (EP) 

Played by John Klein 



DATE DUE 



IAR 5 19(6 



OCT 2 6 



3d8 



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JQdll 



-ffiv^um 



MA r a /m 



CAVLORD 



V*),- 



2003 



OCT 3 ^ 



3 5002 00390 9384 

Klein, John 

The art of playing the modern carillon. 



PRINTED INU. ft. A. 



Music 

fMT 710 \<6 

Klein? Johny 1915- 

The art of playing the 
iri o d e r n c a r i 1 1 o n ♦